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X,

THE ANNALS

AND

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.

INCLUDING

ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY.

(bKING a CONTINUAIION OF THE ' ANNALS ' COMBINED WITH LOUDON AND CHARLESWOKTh's 'magazine of NATURAL HISTORY.')

CONDUCTED BY

CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., JOHN EDWARD GRAY, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., V.F.Z.S. &c.,

AND

WILLIAM FRANCIS, Ph.D., F.L.S.

VOL. XX.— THIRD SERIE

LONDON:

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS.

SOLD BY LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER; SIMPKIN, MARSHAI.I., AND CO.

KENT AND CO.; BAILLIERE, REGENT STREET, AND I'ARIS:

MACLACHLAN AND STEWART, EDIKnUROII :

HODGES AND SMITH, DUBLIN : AND ASHF.K, BERLIN.

1867.

A

" Omnes res creatae sunt divinae sapientiae et potentise testes, divitiae felicitatis humanae : ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex oeconomiain conservatione, pvoportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper aestimata; h. verd eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit."

LiNNjEUS.

" Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu'ouvrir les yeux pour voir qu'elle est le chef-d'oeuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rapportent toutes ses operations." Bruckner, Theorie dti Systeme Animal, Leyden, 1767.

The sylvan powers

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme

And purple heath -flower come not empty-handed,

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the Naiads too

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush

That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles.

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread,

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne,

All, all to us unlock their secret stores

And pay their cheerful tribute.

J. Taylor, Norwich, 1818.

ALEBE u, FLAMMAM.

CONTENTS OF VOL. XX.

[THIRD SERIES.]

NUMBER CXV, p

I. On the Annelid Genus Spharodorum, OErsted, and a new Repre- sentative of it, S. Claparedii. By Dr. Richard Greeff. (Plate I.) 1

II. On the MenispermacecE. By John Miers, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 11

III. List of Coleoptera received from Old Calabar, on the West Coast of Africa. By Andrew Murray, F.L.S 20

IV. Remarks on the Potton Sands, in reply to Mr. Walker's Paper in the 'Annals of Natural History' for November 1866. By Harry Govier Seeley, F.G.S., of the Woodwardian Museum in the Uni- versity of Cambridge 23

V. Remarks on Pyrula (Fulgur) carica (Lamarck) and Pyrula (Ftdgur) perversa {La.ma.vck). By T. Graham Ponton 28

VI. On the Tunnelling Coleopterous Genera Bledius, Heterocerus, Dyschirius, and their Danish Species. By Professor J. C. Schiodte 30

VII. Description of a new Australian Tortoise (Elseya latisternum).

By Dr. J, E. Gray, F.R.S. &c 43

VIII. Additions to the knowledge of Australian Reptiles and Fishes. By Albert Gunther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S 45

IX. On the Shell-structure of Spirifer cuspidatus, and of certain allied Spiriferidce. By William B. Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S. ... 68

New Books: 1. A List of the Flowering Plants, Ferns, and Mosses collected in the immediate neighbourhood of Andover, by C. B. Clarke. 2. Flora of Devon and Cornwall, by J. W. N. Keys. (Ranunculaceffi-Geraniacese.) 3. The Bath Flora : a Lecture delivered to the Members of the Bath Natural History and Anti- quarian Field Club, by the Rev. L. Jenyns. 4. Flora of Norfolk : a Catalogue of Plants found in the County of Norfolk, by the Rev. K. Trimmer 73

ivr CONTENTS.

Page Oa the actual state of our Information relative to the ' Leporide,' or Hybrid between Hare and Rabbit, b\' Dr. Pigeaux ; Megaceros hibernicus in the Cambridgeshire Fens, by Norman Moore, Esq.; Note on Assiminea Francesi<e, by Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c.; On the Species of the Genera Latiaxis, Faunus, and Melanatria, by Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. ; Descriptions of new Fishes, by Dr. F. Steindachner ; Supplement to 'English Botany' lo 80

NUMBER CXYI.

X. On Waldheimia venosa, Solander, sp. By Thomas Davidson, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c 81

XI. List of Coleoptera received from Old Calabar, on the West Coast of Africa. By Andrew Murray, F.L.S 83

XII. On the Occurrence of Diplommatina Huttoni in Trinidad.

By R. J. Lechmere Guppy, F.G.S., F.L.S 95

XIII. Conchological Gleanings. By Dr. E, von Martens 97

XIV. Notulfe Lichenologicffi. No. XVI. By the Rev. W. A. Leighton, B.A., F.L.S. Prof. Santo Garovaglio on the Species of Verrucaria found in Lombardy 106

XV. New Fishes from the Gaboon and Gold Coast. By Albert Gunther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. (Plates II. & IIL) 110

XVI. Description of a new Species of Apocryptes. By Dr. Albert GiJNTHER 117

XVII. A Reply to Mr. II. G. Seeley's Remarks on my Account of the Phosphatic Deposit at Potton in Bedfordshire. By J. F. Walker, B.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.S., F.G.S, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge... 118

XVIII. Note on the Species of the Genus Tribonyx. By P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Zoological Society

of London 1 22

XIX. On. Hyalonema lusitanicum. By J. V. Barboza du Bo- cage ' 123

Proceedings of the Rojal Society 127 140

Cases of Monstrosities becoming the starting-point of New Races in Plants, by C.Naudin; The Theory of the Skeleton, by Harry Seeley, Esq. ; Note on the Phenomena of Muscular Contraction in the Vorticellce, by C. Rouget ; On the Regeneration of the Limbs in the Axolotl {Siren jnsciforynis), by J. M. Philipeaux ; On the Development of the brown Aphis of the Maple, by MM. Balbiani and Signoret; Cervus megaceros previously known in the Fens, by II. Seeley, Esq 141 152

CONTENTS. V

Page NUMBER CXVII.

XX. On Venomous Fishes. By M. Auguste Dumeril 153

XXI. On the Menispermacece. By John Miers, F.R.S., F.L.S.,

&c '. 167

XXII. On the Recent Zoology and Palaeontology of Victoria. Bv Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Natural Science in the University

of Melbourne, Director of the National Museum of Victoria, &c 175

XXIII. Notes on Spiders, with Descriptions of several Species supposed to be new to Arachnologists. By John Blackwall, F.L.S '. 202

XXIV. On some new Species of Oliva and a new Trivia. Bv Frederick P. Marrat 213

XXV. Descriptions of some remarkable new Species and a new Genus of Diurnal Lepidoptera. By Arthur G. Butler, F.Z.S. (Plate IV. tigs. 4-9.) ". 216

XXVI. Description of a new Species of Tiger-Moth in the pos- session of Mr. T. W. Wood. By Arthur^ G. Butler, F.Z.S. (Plate IV. figs. 1-3.) 218

XXVII. Notes on the Skulls of Hares {Leporida) and Picas {La- gomyidcB) in the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S 219

XXVIII. Descriptions of two new Sauriaus from Mossamedes (West Africa). By J. V. Barboza du Boc.\ge 225

On the Development of the Ctenophora, by A. Kowalewskv; Re- markable Instances of Crustacean Parasitism, bv A. E. Verrill ; On the Anatomy of Bahinoglossus (Delle Chiaje), by A. Kowa- lewsky; On the external Characters of the Young of the Central American Tapir {Elasmognathus Bairdii, Gill), by A. E. Verrill

228—232

NUMBER CXVII I.

XXIX. On the Classification of the Subdivisions of M'Coy's Genus Athyris, as determined by the laws of Zoological Nomenclature. By

E. Billings, Palaeontologist of the Gculogical Survey of Canaila ... 233

XXX. Fourth Re])ort on Dredging among the Shetland Isles. By

J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.R.S 217

XXXI. Notulse Lichenologiccx. No. XVII. By the Rev. W. A. Leighton, B.A., F.L.S. Dr. W. Nylander on new British Lichens 256

XXXII. On the Menispermacece. Bv John Miers, F.R.S., F.L.S, &c " 260

VI CONTENTS.

Page

XXXIII. Revision of the Group of Lepidopterous Insects hitherto included in the Genus Pronophila of Westwood. By A. G. Butler, F.Z.S ^(>('

XXXIV. On two new Birds from Eiistern AustraUa. By John Gould, F.R.S 269

XXXV. Synopsis of the Asiatic Squirrels {Sciuridce) in the Collec- tion of the British Museum, describing; one new Genus and some new Species. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z S., &c 2/0

XXXVI. On a new Genus of Phalanger. By Frederick M'Coy, Professor of Natural Science in the Melbourne University and Director

of the National Museum of Victoria. (Plate VI.) 287

XXXVII. Additions to the British Fauna. By Dr. Albert GuNTHER, F.R.S. (Plate V.) 288

XXXVIII. On the Systematic Value of Rhynchophorous Coleo- ptera. By John L. Leconte, M.D 291

Proceedings of the Ro)-al Society 294 300

Notice of a new Species of Spider Monkey [Ateles Bartlettii) in the British Museum, by Dr. J. E. Gray; Note on a Species of Plana- rian Worm hitherto apparently not described, by the Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S. ; Megaceros hibernicus in the Cam- bridgeshire Fens, by Mr. Norman Moore ; Note on Ursus lasiu- tus, a hairy-eared Bear from North China, by Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. ; On the Anatomy and Physiology of Amphioxus, by M. P. Bert 300—304

NUMBER CXIX.

XXXIX. On a new form of Mudfish from New Zealand. By Dr. Albert GiJNTHER, F.R.S. (Plate VII.) 305

XL. Remarks upon Oceanic Forms of Hydrozoa observed at Sea. By CUTHBERT COLLINGV^'OOD, M.A., F.L.S. &c 309

XLI. List of Coleoptera received from Old Calabar, on the West Coast of Africa. By Andrew Murray, F.L.S 314

XLII. Synopsis of the African Squirrels (Sciurida) in the Collec- tion of the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., Keeper of the Zoological Department 323

XLIII. On some undescribed points in the Anatomy of the Limpet {Patella vulgata). By E. Ray Lankester, Christ Church, Oxford 334

XLIV. On the Structure of the Annelida, including a critical

CONTENTS. Vll

Page Examination of the most recent Works on this class of Worms. By

E. CLAPARiiDE 337

XLV. On the Campodeee, a Family of Thysanura. By Dr. Fr. Meinert 3G1

New Books : British Conchology. Vol. IV. Marine Shells, in con- tinuation of the Gastropoda as far as the Bulla Family, by John Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. Mind in Nature; or, the Origin of Life and the Mode of Development of Animals, by Henry James-Clark, A. B., B.S., Adjunct Professor of Zoology in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., &c 378 382

On the Organization of Cryptoprocta ferox, by MM. A. Milne-Ed- wards and A. Grandidier; A way to determine Trichopterous Pupa;, by A. E. Eaton, Trin. Coll. Cam. ; On the Spontaneous Movements of the Leaves of Colocasia esculenta (Schott), and on the Ejection of Water from them in a continuous Jet, by M. Musset; On two new forms of Plants parasitic on Man {Asper- gillus flavescens and A. nigricans, by Robert Wreden ; The Theory of the Skeleton, by Mr. II. Spencer 382—388

NUMBER CXX.

XLVI. Observations on the Aeriferous Vesicles of the Utricularia. By S. B. ScHXETZLER 389

XLVII. Descriptions of new or little-known Species of Asiatic Lepidoptera. By Arthur G. Butler, F.Z.S. (Plates Vll I. & IX. figs. 1-10.) ". 399

XLVIII. Description of a new Genus and Species of American SatyridcE from the Collection of Mr. H. W. Bates. By A. G. Butler, F.Z.S. (PlateIX.fig.il.) 404

XLIX. The Method of Geology; being an Account of the intro- ductory part of a paper on " The Laws which have determined the Distribution of Life and of Rocks," read before the Cambridge Philo- sophical Society, Nov. 12, 1866. By Harry G. Seeley, F.G.S., of the Woodwardian Museum in the Universitj' of Cambridge 405

L. Synopsis of the Species of American Squirrels in the Collection of the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S,, &c. . 415

LI. Synopsis of the Species of Burrowing Squirrels (Tamias) in the British Museum. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S 434

LII. Descriptions of two new Fossil Cowries characteristic of Ter- tiary beds near Melbourne. By Frederick M'Coy, Prof, of Nat.

\

Vlll CONTENTS.

Page Science in Melbourne University, and Government Palfcontologist for Victoria ^"J"

LIII. Notulse Lichenologicse. No. XVIII. By the Rev. W. A. Leighton, B.A., F.L.S.— On the Lichens of Spitzbergen 439

LTV. On a new Species of A^ictorian Honey-eater. By Frede- rick M'CoY, Prof. Nat. Sc. Melbourne University, and Director of the National Museum, Victoria 442

New Book: Letters Home, from Spain, Algeria, and Brazil, during past Entomological Rambles, by the Rev. Hamlet Clark, M.A., F.L.S " 443

Note on Mermis nigrescens, by WiUiam Mitten, A.L.S. ; Experiments on the Axolotl, by M. Auguste Dumeril ; Note on a supposed new Species of Planariau Worm, by the Rev. W. Houghton ; On the Development of Sepiola, by E. Mecznikow ; M. LeVaillant, the African Traveller, by Mr. E. Layard; Investigations on Rhabdltis terricola, by M. J. Perez 445—455

Index 45G

PLATES IN VOL. XX.

New Fish from the Gaboon and Gold Coast.

Plate I. Sphrcrodorum Claparedii.

II." III.

IV. New Diurnal Lepidoptera. Mazaeras Woodii.

V. New British Fish.

VI. Gymnobelideus lycadbeateri.

VII. Neochanna apoda.

VIII. New Asiatic Lepidoptera.

IX. New Asiatic Lepidoptera. New Genus of American Satvridaj.

THE ANNALS

AXD

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.

[THIRD SERIES.]

" per litora spargite museum,

Naiades, et cireClm vitreos considite foiites : Pollice virgineo teueros luc caipite flores : Floribus ct pictum, divs, replete canistrum. At vos, o Nympha? Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvalo variata corallia trunco Vellite musoosis e rupibus, et milii conchas Ferte, Deae pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo."

N, Parthenii Giannettasii Ed. I.

No. 115. JULY 1867.

I. On the Annelid Genus Spliferodoruni^ (Ersted, and a new Ee- 2Jresentatwe of it, S. Claparcdii. By Dr. IIichard Greeff*.

[Piute I.]

Under the name of Sphcerodorum, CErsted, in ISil't, founded a new genus of Annelids^ characterized by the spherical form of the dorsal cirri, and by numerous papilla standing on the fore part of the head. This was afterwards described by John- ston J under the name of PoUicita [peripatus], and lately more carefully by Claparede §, and, with especial reference to the structure of the characteristic globular dorsal cirri, by Kol- liker \\.

During a short residence in Dieppe last year, I found in the oyster-basin of that place a small Annelid which showed a near relationship to the genus in question, but at the same time differed from it in several points, and which, moreover, in other respects seems to me to present some very interesting pecu-

* Translated from Wiegmann's Arcliiv, 186(5, pp. 338-351, by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S., &c.

t "Zui- Classification der Annulaten," Wiegmann's Archiv, 1844,p. 108.

X Annals & Magazine of Natural History, vol. xvi. ]). 5, pi. 2. figs. l-f».

§ ' Beobacbtungen liber Anatomic und Eutwickelungsgescbichte wir- belloser Tbiere,' Leipzig, 1863, p. 5, taf. 11. figs. 8-18.

II "Kurzer Beiicbt uber einige vergl.-anat. Untersucbungcn," Wiirz- burger natnrwiss. Zeitscbrift; 1864, Band v. p. 240, taf. 6. fig. 1.

Ann, &; Mar/. N. Hist. Ser. 3. Vol. xx. 1

2 Dr. R. GrccfF on the Annelid Genus Sphserodorum,

liarities that may render it worth a particular description ■^. I will revert at the conclusion of my communication to the cha- racters common to this worm and to Sphcerodorum, as also to those by which it differs therefrom, in order the better to effect a comparison between them.

The little animal measures scarcely 2 millims. in length, but is of considerable comparative breadth, attaining nearly 0'6 miliim. in the middle regions of the body. It is narrowed before and behind in such a manner that the general form of the body, leaving out of consideration the external appendages, approaches an oval ; nevertheless the narrowed anterior part of the body is shorter and more rounded, whilst the hinder part appears more drawn out. The skin has a general light brownish- yellow colour, with dark-brown marks {jjlaques) distributed singly over the whole surface of the body ; these acquire the most various forms, and possibly represent the secretion pro- duced by the cutaneous glands. At no part is there a trans- verse segmentation of the body indicated by external furrows. The segmentation, however, is sufficiently indicated by the ex- ternal appendages, according to which the entire body is divisible into 18 segments. The cephalic segment (see PI. I. fig. 1), which at first sight almost presents a greater resemblance to that of a mollusk than to that of an annelid, is the longest of all ; its somewhat truncated frontal margin presents in the middle a distinct but not deep notch forming the two lateral lobes of the head. On each lobe are seated two clavate tenta- cles— one placed more towards the upper surface, the other lower down towards the mouth ; so that, in all, four cephalic or frontal tentacles are present two superior, and two inferior. The bases of these, as also the space between them, are densely set with small papillae, likewise more or less clavate, which are distinguished from the true tentacles by nothing but their smaller size ; so that the tentacles, from their whole habit and when compared with the small papillae surrounding them, might likewise be characterized as papillre projecting, in conse- quence of especial development, from the midst of the numerous smaller but otherwise perfectly similar structures. But their constant occurrence on the above-mentioned spots on the head, their size, and mobility justify their receiving the denomination of tentacles.

Further back, at about half the length of the head, there are

* I have alrcr.dy made a brief comuiimication upon this subject, at the fleeting of the Niederrheiuischeu Gesellschaft fiir Natur- und Ileil- kunde (Bonn) on the 8th February, 18()6, where I also exhibited the drawings reLiting to it (Kohiisehe Zeitung, i3lst March, 1S66, No, 90).

oral a new Representative of it, S. Clapavedii. 3

two more tentacles, one on each side, which might be deno- minated posterior cephaUc tentacles or tentacular cir-ri; so that we have in all six tentacles on the head four anterior, and two posterior. The small clavate papillfe mentioned above as oc- curring in the spaces between the anterior tentacles, extend also into the region of tjie posterior tentacles, but are not so closely approximated, and from this point begin to change from the elongate; clavate to a more globular form. I call attention at once to this change, as it indicates at the same time ai. change in the function of these cutaneous appendages, the anterior cla- vate appendages being, in my opinion, organs of touch, whilst the posterior globular ones are to be regarded as glands. The middle part of the cephalic segment bears two reddish-brown eyes, which arc placed a little within the bases of the two lateral posterior tentacles. The segment of a spherical lens projects from each eye forward and outward.

The ce])halic segment, as already remarked with regard to the segmentation in general, is not separated by any transverse furrow from the first segment of the body, but passes into it without any definite boundary. The first body-segment is therefore determined partly by the inferior setiferous pedal tu- bercles, and partly by the large globular cutaneous appendages which at this spot pass like a ring round the whole body. I say like a ring, and must call particular attention to this, be- cause, singularly enough, these appendages are not only ar- ranged transversely upon the dorsal surface between the two lateral rudimentary feet, bat occui)y the ventral surface also iu the same manner *. As regards the number, however, there is a noticeable difference between those standing on the dorsal and ventral surfaces ; for whilst on the back there are six of these globular bodies in a row, there are only four on the ven- tral surface. This condition, of course, tends greatly to sug- gest the notion that tlie two outer lateral processes situated upon the back over the pedal tubercles are to be regarded as the two true dorsal cirri. But the two lateral structures are perfectly similar to those standing in a row between them, both in size and form. As regards their function, moreover, there is no distinction ; all, as we shall see hereafter, are glands. If, therefore, we were to call the two lateral processes dorsal cirri, this might also be required for the other similar ap- pendages situated on the back, and, in the same way, we should also have to name the transverse rows situated on the ventral surface ventral cirri. It would be no obstacle to such a conception

* In Splicerodorum peripatus, as is well known, only one pair of these globnhir cutaneous appendiigcs is situated upon each segment one on each side of the back.

1*

4 Dr. 11. Grceff on the Annelid Genus Sphaerodoriim,

that all these appendages, as ali'early stated, are glands; for the cmi of the Annelids in general are not to be regarded merely as organs of touch or motion, but may apparently be subser- vient to very various,purposes*.

If we now examine these globular cutaneous appendages more closely, we observe, even with a low power, that their cavities are occupied by a coil of tortuous vermiform bodies, which (Erstedf has already detected and described in the dorsal cirri of Spharodorum, and with regard to which he proposes the question whether they may not be ovaries. These peculiar structures seem to have entirely escaped Johnston J, which I can only explain by supposing that he did not examine them in a fresh state ; for if the animals under examination be dead, or if they have been exposed for some time to pressure for the purpose of observation, nothing remains of the original appear- ance, in consequence of the breaking up of the vermiform bodies. Johnston regards the globular appendages in Spharodurnm {PoUicita peripatus) as branchiae. To Ch'.parede belongs the merit of having first more accurately grasped the morpholo- gical nature, although he could not arrive at any definite opinion as to the physiological signification of these organs. He thought that he could see an orifice § in the papilliform process which occurs on the upper part of the globular dorsal cirri in Sp/iarodoriun, but not in our animals, but found that the cap- sule was closed in other respects ; in this, however, as Kolliker Las proved, he was in error.

Kolliker|| first placed their histological and by that means also their physiological character in the proper light, when he found that the papilliform process in Spharodorum is not perforated, but that each of the vermiform bodies situated in the interior of the capsule opens externally by an orifice of its own. He regards the individual bodies as tubular (/lands, which " appa- rently consist entirely of rounded-angular, dark, cell-like struc- tures.'^

As regards my own observations, I have but little to add to Kblliker's statements in relation to the structure of these organs. The mammilliform process occurring upon the capsules in Sp/ice- rodorum is entirely wanting in our animals ; so that I can ex- press no opinion as to the perforation which Claperede describes, but, according to Kolliker, has no existence ; I can, however, completely confirm Kolliker's results, according to which each of

* See Ehler's ' Die Borstenwiirmer,' p . 22.

t " Zur Classification der Annulaten," AYieguiaun's Arcliiv, 1844, p. 108.

X ' Annals,' vol. xvi. p. 5, pi. 2.

§ Beobacht. iiber Anat. der wirbell. Thiere, p. 21, taf. 11. figs. 12, 13.

II Wiirzb, naturw. Zeitschrift, 18G4, p. 240, taf. G. fig. 1.

and a new Representative of it, S. Claparedii. 5

the tubular glands opens externally by a separate orifice (PL I. figs. 10-14).

With regard to the contents of the individual tubes, these frequently consist of densely compressed, small, more or less roundish, sharply defined corpuscles : these were seen by Claparede; and Kolliker, as already stated, calls them '^ cell- like structures.^^ Even by the employment of high powers I could detect no nucleiform structures, or anything of the sort, in the individual corpuscles.

KoUiker's interpretation of the structures in question as tubular glands is the only admissible one ; it is especially founded on the above-mentioned opening of each tube sepa- rately at the external surface.

Thus (to return to the description of our little animal) we have ten of these large globular glandular capsules surrounding the periphery of the first segment of the body, and that of each following one, in two transverse rows, one on the dorsal, the other on the ventral surface. It is only on the last seg- ments that the number diminishes by one or two capsules in each row. Between the regular rows of these large cutaneous appendages there are distributed over the whole surface of the body a very great number of irregularly arranged smaller but likewise globular capsules, the size of which varies greatly among themselves. They all, like the above-described larger structui'cs, represent cutaneous glands; and by their careful examination we may, it appears to me, carry out the very in- teresting observation of the complete development of the glan- dular bodies in question. 1 have figured some of the principal forms and stages of development, so far as the limited material permitted this to be done (PI. I. figs. 3-9). The first (and smallest) of these forms (fig. 3) represents a vesicle of only 0-009 millim. in diameter, in the interior of which a tolerably sharply marked compact nucleus is situated : there are often two, or even three of these nuclei ; but one of them is usually re- markable for its size. A further-advanced form (fig. 4) shows the vesicle enlarged to nearly double the diameter, as also the enclosed nucleus, which has also become filled with a finely granular substance. This type is also retained by the following stage, except that the granular substance of the nucleus be- comes more dense, and some granules shine out of it like dimly lustrous globules. When a certain size has been attained, a roundish perforation of the nuclear substance itself takes place at some spot, usually near the periphery of the nucleus, so that the nucleus appears as if pierced at this point. This first hole is often followed by a second in close juxtaposition with it. As this opening enlarges, the bridge situated towards the peri-

6 Dr. R. Greeff on the Annelid Genus Sphrevodorum,

phery, corresponding with the nai'rowest border of the orifice, breaks through, and the two ends then separate from each other j so that instead of the round hole in the nuclear sub- stance we have a deep indentation of the nuclear substance penetrating from the circumference towards the middle. By this simple process therefore, as may be readily seen, the form of the above-mentioned glandular tube is very soon produced : at first, by the two ends becoming rounded, it has nearly the appearance of a sausage with two surfaces in apposition ; and it frequently retains this form even in the fully developed state. But generally, during the further growth of the tube^ its two extremities separate more or less, and then one of them becomes bent or rolled up, so as even to embrace the neighbouring tubes; and thus the position and form of the individual glands is altered in many ways, and the above-described appearance of the vermiform, tortuous, glandular coil as the contents of the capsule is produced.

As regards the further histological differentiation of the indi- vidual glandular tubes, these, during the processes just de- scribed, become more and more filled with darkly granular substance, in which afterwards larger pale bodies make their appearance; these gradu.ally increase, until finally the whole tube is filled with the roundish corpuscles, or, as Kolliker calls them, cell-like structures, above described. The pei'fectly formed glandular tube is attached by one end, or frequently, as it seemed to me, by both ends_, to the wall of the capsule ; but only one extremity, and with it the wall of the capsule at the same spot, exhibits a roundish external orifice.

The number of glands enclosed in a capsule is not constant. The above-mentioned large capsules standing in regular trans- verse rows generally contain three or four, rarely more (figs. 10 to 14) ; the smaller only one, or, at the utmost, two tubes.

On various parts of the surface of the body, partly upon and partly between the vesicles, and sometimes even within them, we frequently see dark-brown marks [plaques), forming the most multifarious figures, which are often, in consequence of their tenacious consistence, much elongated, and only connected by narrow bridges. These substances appear to have nothing to do with the pigment-structures which so frequently occur in the skin of Annelids; but whether they are, as I suppose, to be regarded as the secretion furnished by the glands, and what purpose is served by it in this case, I cannot decide.

I have already called attention to the gradual transition from the small clavate cutaneous structures, resembling the tentacles which stand upon the anterior portion of the head, to the globular ones which succeed them, and indicated that a change of func

and a new Represent ative of it, S. Claparedii, 7

tion is connected with the change of form. This opinion is founded upon the circumstance that in the small papilhe of the cephalic segment I have never detected structures resembling the above- described developmental stages of the glands^ or the latter with their openings. On the other hand, it appeared to me that fine iilaments penetrated into some of them from below, and passed at the top into granular inflations : these therefore might be regarded as the extremities of nerves. I believe, therefore, that these small papillre of the cephalic seg- ment arc to be regarded as tactile organs, in contradistinction to the globular appendages seated upon the rest of the body, which, as already shown, are cutaneous glands. With reference to Sphcerodorum, Kolliker remarks that the (whole of the) small papillae of the skin are not pierced by glands, but contain nerve- terminations in direct contradiction to Claparede, who found the papillse of the entire surface of the skin pierced by the efferent ducts of small cutaneous glands in the same animal. As I have at my disposal only a few spirit-specimens of Sphce- rodorum, collected last summer in Heligoland, I cannot decide upon this difference, or whether the above-described distinction between tactile and glandular papilhe exists also in Spharo- dorum.

Besides the described circlet of globular glandular capsules (or, if it be preferred, the transverse rows of dorsal and ventral cirri), each segment also bears a pair of uniramose pedal tuber- cles. Each foot (tig. 2) consists of a conical tubercle, at the apex of wliich there is a pair of lamellar processes or fins and a bundle of about six composite setai inserted into the tubercle ; posteriorly the number of the latter diminishes, so that on the last segments there are only one or two setaj in each tubercle ; but these are exactly similar to those of the anterior feet. The pedal tubercles are placed directly beneath the two lateral dorsal capsules, and are usually in part concealed by them.

The alimentary apparatus of our animal commences with a buccal orifice placed on the lov/er surface of the cephahc seg- ment, towards the anterior margin; this, when retracted, re- sembles a funnel with nuuicrous folds. The mouth leads at once into a spacious flask-shaj)ed oesophagus (fig. 1) or gizzard with double wails, or rather consisting of two chambers placed to a certain extent one within the other. By compression, the inner part can be pushed out ; but whether it can be voluntai-ily extended, and is consequently to be regarded as a trunk, I was imable to determine by observation. The oesophagus is directly followed, and, indeed, embraced, by a rather wide, dark-brown intestine, which lies loose in the body-cavity without any attach- ments or constrictions, and makes about four or live convo-

8 Dr. R. Greeff on the Annelid Genus Sphserodoruui,

lutions before reaching the anus, ^vhich is situated at the poste- rior extremity of the body.

With regard to the sexual conditions, I can only state that one of the animals examined I found filled pretty closely with roundish discoid ova^ which lay perfectly loosely and irregularly in the body-cavity, and, surrounding the intestine on all sides, were driven to and fro in the cavity of the body by the move- ments of the intestine and the general movements of the animal.

If we now glance back at the zoological characters of our animal, especially in comparison with those of the genus Si^haro- dorum, we shall be at once struck by certain points common to both. The most prominent of these are the globular cutaneous appendages occupied by glands, and the form of the cephalic segment, with its peculiarly formed tentacles and papillse. Further points of union are presented by the form and compo- sition of the feet, which in both consist of simple conical tins having a bundle of composite setse. CErstcd"^ indeed ascribes to SjjhcErodormn a multiHd tin {pinna unica multrjida) ; but this notion, as Claparede correctly observes, has evidently arisen from the fact that CErsted regarded the glandular appendages which are frequently seated upon the pedal tubercles as parts or branches of the fin. Besides these characters, the two have in common the absence of any external segmentation of the body, or annulation of it by means of transverse furrows, as also, in connexion with this, no internal constrictions of the intestine are present, but the latter in both constitutes a loose tube laid together in several convolutions.

When we consider those properties of our animal which re- move it from Spharodorum, we find, in the first place, that whilst Spharodorum bears only one pair of the large globular cutaneous appendages upon the back of each segment, in our animal ten of these stand upon each segment six on the back, and four on the ventral surface. There is also a difference in the form of these appendages; for in Spharodorum there is a papilliform process upon the globular capsule, whilst in our animal, in which this process is deficient, the globular form of the struc- tures in question is much more clearly shown. In the presence and even the form of the- four frontal tentacles of the buccal segment both agree ; but we have described two posterior tentacles or tentacular cirri, exactly like the frontal tentacles, which are wanting in Spharodorvm, where their place is taken by two mere rudimentary glandular appendages.

Of subordinate distinctions we find that in our animal there are at the apices of the pedal tubercles two lamellar fins, which arie absent in SpJtarodorum -, whilst, on the other hand, the * hoc. cit. p. 108.

and a new Bepresentaiive of it, S. Clapavedii. 9

peculiarities whicli Claparede describes in tlie feet of some of its segments (the tliird, fourth, &c.) are wanting in our animal. Further, according to the statements of all authors, Spharo- ihriim has four eyes, whilst our animal only shows two. The accordance of the true intestine has already been pointed out; but we find essential differences in the anterior part of the ali- mentary tube, as in SpJiarodorum this consists of three succes- sive divisions (see Claparede, Anat. &c., p. 51), which cannot be made to agree with the structure of the cesophagus &c. described by us.

Lastly, as regards the external form of the body in general, this, again, is extremely different in the two animals. (J^rsted says oi Spliarodoriim, "corpus linearc teretiusculum ;" John- ston, "body serpentiform;^^ and, lastly, Claparede describes Spluerodorum as a cylindrical worm of 3 inches long. If we contrast with this the little animal above described, scarcely 3 millims. in length, and comparatively very broad and nearly- oval, the difference becomes very striking.

Nevertheless, notwithstanding all these differences, the affini- ties first indicated lead me to prefer uniting our animal, at least provisionally, with Spharodorum. to form a single genus, for which purpose, however, the generic characters given byCErsted and others must undergo some modifications. I would define the genus as follows :

Genus Spil^rodorum, OErsted.

The more or less elongated body, which is always narrowed before or behind, nowhere shows any transverse annulation or segmentation indicated by external furrows, although this is defined by the outer appendages. The buccal segment bears on the anterior margin of the small and not deeply divided cephalic lobes four clavate and anteriorly somewhat inflated frontal tentacles, the bases of and intervals between which are closely set with small but also clavate papillie. Further back, likewise on the buccal segments, there are two tentacular cirri, one on each side, which sometimes resemble the frontal tenta- cles, and in this case are to be regarded as true tentacles also in respect of their function, sometimes in form and signification approach the globular cutaneous appendages of the following segments, and must then pass as glandular organs. The first body-segment and all the following ones are characterized by large globular cutaneous appendages occupied by tortuous tubular glands. Of these either each segment bears only two upon its back, namely, one on each side over the pedal tubercle (dorsal cirri), or the whole segment is surrounded by a circlet

10 Dr. R. Grceff on the Annelid Genus Sphserodorum.

of these appendages, v/liicli are placed at regular intervals, and form a transverse row upon the back and another on the belly. Between the large cutaneous appendages there are numerous small ones irregularly scattered over the body. Feet simple, containing a bundle of composite setae.

1. SpJiarodorum flavum, CErst.

Annulat. Danicor. Conspectus, fasc. i. p. 43, pi. 1. fig. 5, pi. G. figs. 92, 101. Archiv flir Natiu-g. 1844, i. p. 108.

Corpore ]|" longo, |"' lato, teretiusculo, flavescente, utrinque fere sequaliter attenuate, segmentis 150, duplo latioribus quam lougis, papillarum 12-16 in margine anteriore capitis, duabus paulo longioribus; oculis quatuor quadratum forman- tibus ; pinnis abbreviatis, 7-8-fidis, setis 5-7 uncinatis.

The preceding character of CErsted's species must certainly undergo some alterations in accordance with the above observa- tions. As, however, S. flctvum does not appear to have been observed by any one since (Erstcd, I leave his description unal- tered for the present. It is possible, moreover, that there is no specific difference between S. Jlavimi and S, peripatus.

2. Spharodorum peripatus, Grube.

(Die Familien tier Anueliden, p. G"] .)

Pollicita peripalus, Johnston, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi. p. 5, pi. 2. figs. 1 (5.

Sp/icerodorum peripatus is the species investigated by Clapa- rcde and Kolliker, as has already been repeatedly stated.

3. Spharadorum Clapuredii, sp. n. PI. I.

I venture to name the new species described in detail in this paper after the indefatigable observer who has done so much for the natural history of the Annelida.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE L

Fi(j. 1. Sph(srodorum Claparedii, magnified about 40 diameters.

Fig. 2. Foot with the bundle of composite uncini, magnified 300 diameters.

Figs. 3-9. Developmental stages of the glandular appendages, magnified

about 600 diameters. Figs. 10-14. Developed glandular capsules with the tubes contained in

them, and opening externally by a fine orifice in the wall of the

capsule ; magnified about 600 diameters.

Mr. J. Miers on the Menispermacefe. 11

II. On the Menispermacese. By John Miers, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.

[Continued from vol. xix. p. 330.]

50. Pycnarrhena.

This genus was established by me in 1851 upon an Indian plant in the Wallichian Collection. It is easily recognized by its oblong, acuminated, simply penninerved leaves, npon short and remarkably tumid petioles : this manner of nervation, though less frequent, is not rare among the Monspermacece, for it occurs also in Hyperbcena, Antitaxis, Penianthus, Clambus, Elissarrhena, Spirospermum, and Rhaptonema. It is also remarka- ble for having nine stamens almost without filaments, or, rather, as many 2-celled anthers, crowded in three series so as to form a sessile central head, after the manner oiAnamirta; the anthers are transversely oval, 2-valved, gaping by a common horizontal suture. The drupe is oval, with the vestige of the style placed a little above the middle on the ventral face ; the putamen is reniformly oval, somewhat compressed, thin and testaceous, the seed being appended to the slight intrusion of an almost obsolete con- dyle on the ventral side; the embryo is exalbuminous; the co- tyledons, occupying almost the whole space of the cell, are very fleshy, accumbent, lunately incurved at the apex towards the ventral face, where the minute I'adicle points to the persistent style. The genus comes near to Antitaxis.

Pycnarrhena, nob. Flores dioici. Masc. Sepula 6-9, ter- natim disposita, exteriora gradatim minora et bracteiformia, 3 interiora multo majora, cuneatim ovalia, valde concava, jestivatione imbricata. Petala 6, sepalis breviora, cuneata, transversim latiora, apice subtruncata, lateribus paulo oblique involutis, membranacea. Stamina 9, in glomerulum centraleni crebriter aggregata ; filamenta brevissima, tenuia, fere obso- leta; antherfe subglobosse, cruciatim sulcata;, sej)to transverso bivalvatim hiantes, loculo autico septulo verticali diviso, hinc insequaliter 3-locellata3. Fl. Foein. ignoti. Dnipa gibboso- ovata, styli vestigio facie ventrali supra medium notata, glabra : putmiien subreniformi-ovatum, paulo compressum, la^ve, chartaceo-testaceum, 1-loculare; condijlus e sinu ven- trali intra loculum paulo intrusus, hinc convexiusculus. Se- men loculo conforme, exalbuminosum ; integumcntum tcnuiter membranaceum, facie ventrali condylo affixum ; enibnjo locu- lum implens ; cutyledones magnae, carnosse, accumbentes, apice incumbentim incurvee, radicula minima supcra ad stylum spectante multoties longiores.

Frutices Indim urientalis et msulanim indigeni ; rami riyidi,

12 Mr. J. Miers on the Meiiispermacese.

flexuosi, axillis nodosis et approaimafis ; folia oUonga, utrhiqve subacuta, lucida, glaherrima, penninervia, svpra in nervis sul- cata, petiolo hrevi, apice valde tumido et cavo : ])aniculpe ^ perplurimce vel pauciores, supti'a-axiUareSyfasciculatce, interdum brevissimoi et crebriter siibglumeratcp, aut laxe ramosa et petiolo p)aulo longiores ; floribus parvis : in $ pedicelli pauci, axillares, et \-flori.

The characters of the following species will be given in the third volume of the ' Contributions to Botany :'

1. Pycnarrhena plenijlora, nob. in Ann. Nat. Hist. 2 ser,. vii. 44; Pj'cnarrhena planiflora, Hook. ^' 7h. Fl. Ind. i. 206 ; Cocculus planiflorus, Wall, {pro errore typograpjhico vice plenillori). In India orientali : v. s. in herb. Soc. Linn. S, Sylhet et in hort. Bot. Calc. cult. (Wall. Cat. 4961); in herb. Hook. $ , Bengal (Griffiths).

2. t wnef act a, noh. In Borneo: v. s. in herb. Hook. ^,

Bangarmassing (Motley, 357).

3. mecistojihijUa, nob. In Himalaya : v. s. in herb. Hook.,

Assam (Griffiths, 1264).

51. Antitaxis.