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A GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY

BOOKS FOR THE, HOUSEHOLD.

Practical Cooking and Serving.

By J. M. Hill, ^ith many Coloured and Half-tone Illustrations. Crown 8vo, price lOs. net.

" We think the book the best and most helpful of the many published of late years." Daily Chronicle,

The Pleasures of the Table.

By E. H. Ellwanger. 12s. net.

" Charmingly written, well illustrated and appeals to the epicure in epigrams as well as entries, to the connoisseur of wit as well as wine." Lady's Pictorial.

The Complete Indian Housekeeper and

Cook. By Flora Annie Steel and Grace Gardiner. In one Volume. 6s. "It will be invaluable to the English housekeeper in India." P nil Mall Gazette.

The Cook's Decameron.

By Mrs, W. G. Waters. With over 200 Italian recipes. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d.

" One of the most novel and really useful works on Cookery it has been my lot to read." Ladys Pictorial.

The American Salad Book.

By M. De Loup. 2s. 6d.

"Should be in every English Household." Daily Graphic.

Practical Lessons in Cookery for Small

Households. By Georgette Bendall. Is. net.

" A most useful little book, to be recommended on account ot the economical nature of the recipes." Glasgow Herald.

Modern Housecraft.

By Lucy H. Yates. Fcap. 8vo, price 2s. 6d. net.

"A valuable little handbook, full of advice. . . . The advice is sound, the discussions are eminently practical, and the book should be something of a boon." The Evening Standard.

London : WILLIAM HEINEMANN.

i'jr,.M,,.7

A GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY

BY

A. ESCOFFIER

OF THE CAHI-TON HOTEL

LONDON WILLIAM HEINEMANN

190;

in

Copyright 1907 hy William Heinemann

PREFACE

If the art of Cookery in all its branches were not under- going a process of evolution, and if its canons could be once and for ever fixed, as are those of certain scientific operations and mathematical procedures, the present work would have no raison d'etre; inasmuch as there already exist several excellent culinary text-books in the English language. But everything is so unstable in these times of progress at any cost, and social customs and methods of life alter so rapidly, that a few years now suffice to change completely the face of usages which at their inception bade fair to outlive the age so enthusiastically were they welcomed by the public.

In regard to the traditions of the festal board, it is but twenty years ago since the ancestral English customs began to make way before the newer methods, and we must look to the great impetus given to travelling by steam traction and naviga- tion, in order to account for the gradual but unquestionable revolution.

In the wake of the demand came the supply. Palatial hotels were built, sumptuous restaurants were opened, both of which offered their customers luxuries undreamt of theretofore in such establishments.

Modern society contracted the habit of partaking of light suppers in these places, after the theatres of the Metropolis had closed; and the well-to-do began to flock to them on Sundays, in order to give their servants the required weekly rest. And, since restaurants allow of observing and of being observed, since they are eminently adapted to the exhibiting of magnificent dresses, it was not long before they entered into the life of Fortune's favourites.

But these new-fangled habits had to be met by novel methods of Cookery ^better adapted to the particular environment in which they were to be practised. The admirable productions popularised by the old Masters of the Culinary Art of the pre-

vi PREFACE

ceding Century did not become the light and more frivolous atmosphere of restaurants ; were, in fact, ill-suited to the brisk waiters, and their customers who only had eyes for one another.

The pompous splendour of those bygone dinners, served in the majestic dining-halls of Manors and Palaces, by liveried footmen, was part and parcel of the etiquette of Courts and lordly mansions.

It is eminently suited to State dinners, which are in sooth veritable ceremonies, possessing their ritual, traditions, and one might even say their high priests ; but it is a mere hin- drance to the modern, rapid service. The complicated and sometimes heavy menus would be unwelcome to the hyper- critical appetites so common nowadays; hence the need of a radical change not only in the culinary preparations themselves, but in the arrangements of the menus, and the service.

Circumstances ordained that I should be one of the movers in this revolution, and that I should manage the kitchens of two establishments which have done most to bring it about. I therefore venture to suppose that a book containing a record of all the changes which have come into being in kitchen work changes whereof I am in a great part author^may have some chance of a good reception at the hands of the public, i.e., at the hands of those very members of it who have profited by the changes I refer to.

For it was only with the view of meeting the many and persistent demands for such a record that the present volume was written.

I had at first contemplated the possibility of including only new recipes in this formulary. But it should be borne in mind that the changes that have transformed kitchen procedure during the last twenty-five years could not all be classed under the head of new recipes ; for, apart from the fundamental principles of the science, which we owe to Careme, and which will last as long as Cooking itself, scarcely one old-fashioned method has escaped the necessary new moulding required by modern demands. For fear of giving my work an incomplete appear- ance, therefore, I had to refer to these old-fashioned practices and to include among my new recipes those of the former which most deserved to survive. But it should not be forgotten that in a few years, judging from the rate at which things are going, the publication of a fresh selection of recipes may become necessary ; I hope to live long enough to see this accomplished, in order that I may follow the evolution, started in my time, and add a few more original creations to those I have already

PREFACE vii

had the pleasure of seeing adopted; despite the fact that the discovery of new dishes grows daily more difficult.

But novelty is the universal cry novelty by hook or by crook ! It is an exceedingly common mania among people of inordinate wealth to exact incessantly new or so-called new dishes. Sometimes the demand comes from a host whose luxu- rious table has exhausted all the resources of the modern cook's repertory, and who, having partaken of every delicacy, and often had too much of good things, anxiously seeks new sensa- tions for his blase palate. Anon, we have a hostess, anxious to outshine friends with whom she has been invited to dine, and whom she afterwards invites to dine with her.

Novelty ! It is the prevailing cry ; it is imperiously demanded by everyone.

For all that, the number of alimentary substances is com- paratively small, the number of their combinations is not infinite, and the amount of raw material placed either by art or by nature at the disposal of a cook does not grow in propor- tion to the whims of the public.

What feats of ingenuity have we not been forced to perform, at times, in order to meet our customers' wishes ? Those only who have had charge of a large, modern kitchen can tell the tale. Personally, I have ceased counting the nights spent in the attempt to discover new combinations, when, completely broken with the fatigue of a heavy day, my body ought to have been at rest.

Yet, the Chef who has had the felicity to succeed in turning out an original and skilful preparation approved by his public and producing a vogue, cannot, even for a time, claim the monopoly of his secret discovery, or derive any profit therefrom. The painter, sculptor, writer and musician are protected by law. So are inventors. But the chef has absolutely no redress for plagiarism on his work ; on the contrary, the more the latter is liked and appreciated, the more will people clamour for his recipes. Many hours of hard work perhaps underlie his latest creation, if it have reached the desired degree of perfection.

He may have forfeited his recreation and even his night's rest, and have laboured without a break over his combination; and, as a reward, he finds himself compelled, morally at least, to convey the result of his study to the first person who asks, and who, very often, subsequently claims the invention of the recipe to the detriment of the real author's chances and reputa- tion.

This frantic love of novelty is also responsible for many of

VIU

PREFACE

the difficulties attending the arrangement of menus ; for very few people know what an arduous task the composing of a perfect menu represents.

The majority even of those who are accustomed to recep- tions and the giving of dinners suppose that a certain routine alone is necessary, together with some culinary practice, in order to write a menu ; and few imagine that a good deal more is needed than the mere inscription of Courses upon a slip of pasteboard.

In reality the planning of these alimentary programmes is among the most difficult problems of our art, and it is in this very matter that perfection is so rarely reached. In the course of more than forty yearo' experience as a chef, I have been responsible for thousands of menus, some of which have since become classical and have ranked among the finest served in modern times; and I can safely say, that in spite of the familiarity such a period of time ought to give one with the work, the setting-up of a presentable menu is rarely accom- plished without lengthy labour and much thought, and for all that the result is not always to my satisfaction. From this it may be seen how slender are the claims of those who, without any knowledge of our art, and quite unaware of the various properties belonging to the substances we use, pretend to arrange a proper menu.

However difficult the elaboration of a menu may be, it is but the first and by no means the only difficulty which results from the rapidity with which meals are served nowadays. The number of dishes set before the diners being considerably reduced, and the dishes themselves having been deprived of all the advantages which their sumptuous decorations formerly lent them, they must recover, by means of perfection and delicacy, sufficient in the way of quality to compensate for their dimin- ished bulk and reduced splendour. They must be faultless in regard to quality; they must be savoury and light. The choice of the raw material, therefore, is a matter demanding vast experience on the part of the chef; for the old French adage which says that " La sauce fait passer le poisson " has long since ceased to be true, and if one do not wish to court disapproba- tion— often well earned the fish should not be in the slightest degree inferior to its accompanying sauce.

While on the subject of raw material, I should like, en passant, to call attention to a misguided policy which seems to be spreading in private houses and even in some commercial establishments; I refer to the custom which, arising as it doubt-

PREFACE ix

less does from a mistaken idea of economy, consists of entrusting the choice of kitchen provisions to people unacquainted with the profession, and who, never having used the goods which' they have to buy, are able to judge only very superficially of their quality or real value, and cannot form any estimate of their probable worth after the cooking process.

If economy were verily the result of such a policy none would object to it. But the case is exactly the reverse; for, in the matter of provisions, as in all commercial matters, the cheapest is the dearest in the end. To obtain good results, good material in a sufficient quantity must be used, and, in order to obtain good material, the latter should be selected by the person who is going to use it, and who knows its qualities and properties. Amphitryons who set aside these essential prin- ciples may hope in vain to found a reputation for their tables.

It will be seen that the greater part of the titles in this work have been left in French. I introduced, or rather promul- gated this system, because, since it is growing every day more customary to write menus in French, it will allow those who are unacquainted with the language to accomplish the task with greater ease. Moreover, many of the titles especially those of recent creations are quite untranslatable. As the index, how- ever, is in English, and in every case the order number of each recipe accompanies the number of the page where it is to be found, no confusion can possibly arise. I have also allowed certain French technical terms, for which there exist no English equivalents, to remain in their original form, and these will be found explained in a glossary at the end of the book.

I preferred to do this rather than strain the meaning of certain English words, in order to fit them to a slightly unusual application ; and in so doing I only followed a precedent which has been established on a more or less large scale by such authors of English books on French cooking as Francatelli, Gouff^, Ranhoffer, etc.

But the example for such verbal adoptions was set long ago in France, where sporting and other terms, for which no suitable native words could be found, were borrowed wholesale from the English language, and gallicised. It is therefore not unreason- able to apply the principle to terms in cookery which, though plentiful and varied in France, are scarce in this country.

To facilitate the reading of the recipes, all words which are not in common use, and of which the explanation will be found in the Glossary, are italicised in the text.

In concluding this preface, which, I fear, has already over-

PREFACE

reached the bounds I intended for it, I should like to thank those of my lady clients as well as many English epicures whose kind appreciation has been conducive to the writing of this work. I trust they will favour the latter with the generous considera- tion of which they have so frequently given the author valuable proofs, and for which he is glad of an opportunity of expressing his deep gratitude.

CONTENTS

PART I

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS CHAPTER I

PAGE

FONDS DE CUISINE ........ I

CHAPTER II THE LEADING WARM SAUCES ..... '5

CHAPTER III

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES ... . . 24

CHAPTER IV

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS ..... 48

CHAPTER V

SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS . ...... 59

CHAPTER VI THE COURT-BOUILLONS AND THE MARINADES . . . -64

CHAPTER VII \J/: ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS ..... 70

CHAPTER VIII THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS . . . . 87

CHAPTER IX GARNISHING PREPARATIONS FOR RELEVis AND ENTR]£eS . . 92

CHAPTER X

U^DING CULINARY OPERATIONS . .... 97

xii CONTENTS

PART II

RECIPES AND MODES OF PROCEDURE

CHAPTER XI

PAGE

HORS-D'CEUVRES . . . . . . . , .137

CHAPTER XII

EGGS ....... . . 164

CHAPTER XIII SOUPS .......... 197

CHAPTER XIV

FISH .......... 260

CHAPTER XV RELEVilS AND ENTRIES OF BUTCHER'S MEAT .... 352

CHAPTER XVI RELEVES AND ENTRIES OF POULTRY AND GAME .... 473

CHAPTER XVII ROASTS AND SALADS ........ 605

CHAPTER XVIII VEGETABLES AND FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS .... 624

CHAPTER XIX SAVORIES .......... 678

CHAPTER XX ENTREMETS. (SWEETS) . . ..... 687

CHAPTER XXI

ICES AND SHERBETS ..... 788

CHAPTER XXII

DRINKS AND REFRESHMENTS . . . . . . .816

CHAPTER XXIII FRUIT-STEWS AND JAMS ,.,,... 820

GLOSSARY

Abats, stands for such butcher's supplies as heads, hearts, livers, kidneys, feet, &c.

Aiguillettes, see No. 1755.

Ailerons, see No. 1583.

Amourettes, see No. 1288.

Anglaise, to treat k I'Anglaise, see No. 174.

Anglaise, to cook k I'Anglaise, means to cook plainly in water.

Anglaise, a preparation of beaten eggs, oil and seasoning.

Attereaux, see No. 12 19.

Baba-moulds, a kind of small deep cylindrical mould, slightly wider at the top than at the bottom.

Bain-Marie, a hot-water bath in which utensils containing various culinary preparations are immersed to keep warm, or for the purpose of poach- ing or cooking.

Barquettes, see No. 314.

Biscottes, a kind of rusks.

Blanch, Blanched, see No. 273.

Brandade, see No. 127.

Brunoise-fashion, see Cut below.

Canapis, see No. 316.

Caramel Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.

Casserole (En), see No. 250.

Cassolette, a kind of hot hors-d'oeuvre, moulded to the shape of a small drum.

apes, a kind of mushroom (Boletus edulis).

Chartreuse-fashion, see No. 1220.

Chiffonade, see No. 215.

Chinois, a very small green candied orange.

Chipolata, a kind of small sausages.

Choux, a kind of cake made from Pate k Choux, q.v.

Cisel, Ciseled, to cut a vegetable after the manner of a chaff-cutting machine.

Clothe, Clothed, Clothing {of moulds), see No. 916.

Coeotte {En), see No. 250.

Concass, Concassed, to chop roughly.

xiv GLOSSARY

Contise, to incise a piepe of meat at stated intervals, and to insert slices of truffle, or other substance, into each incision.

Crepinettes, see No. 14 lo.

Croustade, see No. 2393.

Croutons, pieces of bread of various shapes and sizes, fried in butter. In the case of aspic jelly, croutons stand for variously shaped pieces used in bordering dishes.

Cut, Brunoise-fashion = to cut a product into small dice.

Cut, Julienne-fashion = to cut a product into match-shaped rods.

Cut, Paysanne-fashion = to cut a product into triangles.

Dariok-moulds, small Baba-moulds, q.v.

Darne, see No. 184.

Daubilre, an earthenware utensil used in the cooking of Daubes.

icarlate (A P), salted meat is said to be k I'^carlate when it is swathed in a coat of scarlet jelly.

Escarole, Batavia chicory.

Feuilletis, a kind of puffs made from puff-paste.

Flute (French, soup), a long crisp roll of bread.

Fondue, (i) a cheese preparation; (2) a pulpy state to which such vege- tables as tomatoes, sorrel, &c., are reduced by cooking.

Fumet, a kind of essence extracted from fish, game, &c.

Galette, a large quoit, made from puff-paste or short-paste, &c.

Gaufrette, a special wafer.

Ginoise, see No. 2376.

Gild, Gilding, Gilded (i) to cover an object with beaten eggs, by means of a brush j (2) to give a golden sheen to objects by means of heat.

Gratin, Gratined, see No. 268 to 272 inclusive.

Hatelet, an ornamental skewer ; the word sometimes stands for Attereaux.

Julienne, Julienne-fashion, see Cut.

Langoustine, a small variety of the Spiny Lobster.

Large-Ball Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.

Large-Crack Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.

Large-Thread Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.

Maddoine, a mixture of early-season vegetables or fruit.

Madeleine-mould, a mould in the shape of a narrow scallop-shell.

Manied (said of butter), see No. r5i.

Marinade, see No. i68.

Meringue, see No. 2382. Meringued =C02X&&. with meringue.

Mirepoix, see No. 228.

Mise-en-place, a general name given to those elementary preparations which are constantly resorted to during the various stages of most culinary operations.

Morue, Newfoundland or Iceland salt-cod.

Mousses, a class of light, hot or cold preparations of fish, meat, poultry, game, etc., and sweets, moulded in large moulds in sufficient quan- tities for several people.

GLOSSARY XV

Mousselines, same as above, but moulded in small quantities at a time,

enough for one person. Mousserons, a kind of mushroom. Nappe Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Orgeat, a beverage made from syrup and almonds. Oxalis, a Mexican vegetable, aUied to sorrel, of which the roots principally

are eaten. Paillettes au Parmesan, see No. 2322.

Palmettes, palm-shaped pieces of puif-paste, used in decorating. PanSs i PAnglaise, treated k I'Anglaise, see Anglaise. Pannequets, see No. 2403. Papillate, see No. 1259. P&te i Choux, see No. 2373. Paupiette, a strip of chicken, of fish fillet, or other meat, garnished with

forcemeat, rolled to resemble a scroll and cooked. Paysanne-fashion, see Cut. Pluches, the shreds of chervil, used for soups. Po'ele, Peeling, see No. 250. Peek (A Id), see No. 395. Pralin, see No. 2352.

Pralined, having been treated with Pralin, q.v. Printanier (Eng. Vernal), a name given to a garnish of early-season

vegetables, cut to various shapes. Profiterolles, see No. 218. R&ble, the back of a hare. Ravioli, see No. 2296. Ribbon Stage, see No. 2376. Rissole, to fry brown. Salpicon, a compound of various products, cut into dice, and, generally,

cohered with sauce or forcemeat. Sautt, Sauttd, a process of cooking described under No. 251. Saute, a qualifying term applied to dishes treated in the way described

under No. 251. Savarin-mould, an even, crown-shaped mould. Small- Ball Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Small-Crack Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Small- Thread Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Souffli, name given to a class of light, hot or cold preparations of fish,

meat, poultry, game, etc., and sweets, to which the whites of eggs are

usually added if the preparation is served hot, and to which whisked

cream is added if the preparation is served cold. Soup-Flute, see Flute. Stages in the Cooking of Sugar :

Small-Thread'j .

Large-Thread J-See No. 2344.

Small-Ball J

xvi GLOSSARY

Stages in the Cooking of Sugar {continued) :

Large-Ball ^

Small-Crack L, .^

Large-Crack f^^ ^°- ^344-

Caramel J

Nappe, see No. 2955. Subrics, see No. 2137. Suprtme, a name given to the fillet of the breast of a fowl. The term has

been extended to certain of the best parts of fish, game, etc. Terrine, a patty.

Terrine a P&te, a special utensil in which patties are cooked. Tomatid. Preparations are said to be tomatdd when they are mixed

with enough tomato purde for the shade and flavour of the latter to

be distinctly perceptible in them. Vesiga, the dried spine-marrow of the sturgeon. Zest, the outermost, coloured, glossy film of the rind of an orange or

lemon.

PART I

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF COOKING

CHAPTER I

FONDS DE CUISINE

Before undertaking the description of the different kinds of dishes whose recipes I purpose giving in this work, it will be necessary to reveal the groundwork whereon these recipes are built. And, although this has already been done again and again, and is wearisome in the extreme, a text-book on cooking that did not include it would be not only incomplete, but in many cases incomprehensible.

Notwithstanding the fact that it is the usual procedure, in matters culinary, to insist upon the importance of the part played by stock, I feel compelled to refer to it at the outset of this work, and to lay even further stress upon what has already been written on the subject.

Indeed, stock is everything in cooking, at least in French cooking. Without it, nothing can be done. If one's stock is good, what remains of the work is easy ; if, on the other hand, it is bad or merely mediocre, it is quite hopeless to expect any- thing approaching a satisfactory result.

The workman mindful of success, therefore, will naturally direct his attention to the faultless preparation of his stock, and, in order to achieve this result, he will find it necessary not merely to make use of the freshest and finest goods, but also to exercise the most scrupulous care in their preparation, for, in cooking, care is half the battle. Unfortunately, no theories, no formulae, and no recipes, however well written, can take the place of practical experience in the acquisition of a full know- ledge concerning this part of the work the most important, the most essential, and certainly the most difficult part.

In the matter of stock it is, above all, necessary to have a sufficient quantity of the finest materials at one's disposal. The master or mistress of a house who stints in this respect thereby deliberately forfeits his or her right to make any remark

B

2 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY

whatsoever to the chef concerning his work, for, let the talent or merits of the latter be what they may, they are crippled by insufficient or inferior material. It is just as absurd to exact excellent cooking from a chef whom one provides with defective or scanty goods, as to hope to obtain wine from a bottled decoction of logwood.

The Principal Kinds of Fonds de Cuisine (Foundation Sauces and Stocks)

The principal kinds of fonds de cuisine are :■

1. Ordinary and clarified consommes.

2. The brown stock or " estouffade," game stocks, the bases of thickened gravies and of brown sauces.

3. White stock, basis of white sauces.

4. Fish stock.

5. The various essences of poultry, game, fish, &c., the complements of small sauces.

6. The various glazes : for meat, game, and poultry.

7. The basic sauces : Espagnole,- Veloute, Bechamel, Tomato, and Hollandaise.

8. The savoury jellies or aspics of old-fashioned cooking. To these kinds of stock, which, in short, represent the

buttresses of the culinary edifice, must now be added the follow- ing preparations, which are, in a measure, the auxiliaries of the above :

1. The roux, the cohering element in sauces.

2. The " Mirepoix " and " Matignon " aromatic and flavouring elements.

3. The " Court-Bouillon " and the " Blancs."

4. The various stuffings.

5. The marinades.

6. The various garnishes for soups, for relev^s, for entries, &c. ("Duxelle," " Duchesse," " Dauphine," Pate a choux, frying batters, various Salpicons, Profiteroles, Royales CEufs fil6s, Diablotins, Pastes, &c.).

I— ORDINARY OR WHITE CONSOMME

Quantities for making Four Quarts.

3 lbs. of shin of beef. | lb. of leeks and i stick of celery. 3 lbs. of lean beef. | lb. of parsnips.

1 1 lbs. of fowls' carcases. i medium-sized onion with a

I lb. of carrots. clove stuck in it.

I lb. of turnips.

FONDS DE CUISINE 3

Preparation. Put the meat into a stock-pot of suitable dimensions, after having previously strung it together; add the poultry carcase, five quarts of water, and one-half oz. of grey salt. Place the stock-pot on a moderate fire in such a manner that it may not boil too quickly, and remember to stir the meat from time to time. Under the influence of the heat, the water gradually reaches the interior of the meat, where, after having dissolved the liquid portions, it duly com- bines with them. These liquid portions contain a large pro- portion of albumen, and as the temperature of the water rises this substance has a tendency to coagulate. It also increases in volume, and, by virtue of its lightness, escapes from the water and accumulates on the surface in the form of scum. Carefully remove this scum as it forms, and occasionally add a little cold water before the boil is reached in order that, the latter being retarded, a complete expulsion of the scum may be effected. The clearness of the consomm^ largely depends upon the manner in which this skimming has been carried out. Then the vegetable garnishing is added. The scum from these is removed as in the previous case, and the edge of the stock-pot should be carefully wiped to the level of the fluid, so as to free it from the deposit which has been formed there. The stock-pot is then moved to a corner of the fire where it may continue cooking slowly for four or five hours. At the end of this time it should be taken right away from the fire, and, after half a pint of cold water has been added to its con- tents, it should be left to rest a few minutes with a view to allowing the grease to accumulate on the surface of the liquid, whence it must be carefully removed before the consomm^ is strained. This last operation is effected by means of a very fine strainer, placed on the top of a white tureen (clean and wide), which should then be placed in a draught to hasten the cooling of the consomm6. The tureen should not on any account be covered, and this more particularly in summer, when rapid cooling is a precautionary measure against fer- mentation.

Remarks upon the Different Causes which Combine to Influence the Quality of a Consomme

It will be seen that I have not made any mention in the above formula of the meat and the vegetables which have helped to make the consomm^, my reason being that it is preferable to remove them from the stock-pot only after the

B 2

4 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY

broth has been strained, so as not to run the risk of disturbing the latter.

The quality of the meat goes a long way . towards settling the quality of the consomme. In order that the latter be perfect, it is essential that the meat used should be- that of comparatively old animals whose flesh is well set and rich in flavour. This is a sine qua non, and the lack of meat coming from old animals in England accounts for the difficulty attaching to the making of a good consomm^ and savoury sauces in this country. Cattle in England are killed at an age varying from three to four years at the most; the meat thus obtained has no equal for the purpose of roasts and grills, and anything approaching it is rarely met with on the Continent. But when this same meat is used for boiling or braising, it does not contain enough juice or flavour to yield a satisfactory result.

This shortcoming is furthermore aggravated by a fault that many commit who are employed in the making of consommes and stock. The fault in question consists in cooking the bones simultaneously with the meat. Now to extract that gelatinous element from bone which produces the mellowness character- istic of all good consommes, it is necessary that the gelatigenous bodies should be cooked for twelve hours at least, and even after that time has elapsed they are still not entirely spent. On the Continent the quality of the meat easily compensates for this technical error, but such is certainly not the case in England, where five hours' stewing only results in a flat and insipid consomm^.

I therefore believe that, in the case of either consomme or stock, the formulas of which I shall give later, it would be ad- visable for the bones to stew at least twelve hours, and this only after they have been well broken up, while the quantity of water used should be so calculated as to suffice exactly for the im- mersion of the meat that must follow. The contents of this first stock-pot should include half of the vegetables mentioned, and the consomm6 thus obtained, after having been strained and cooled, will take the place of the water in the recipe, in accord- ance with the directions I have given above.

The Uses of White Consomme

., White consomme is used in the preparation of clarified con- sommes, in which case it undergoes a process of clarifying, the directions for which will be given later. It also serves as the liquor for thick soups, poached fowls, &c. It must be limpid.

FONDS DE CUISINE 5

as colourless as possible, and very slightly salted, for, what- ever the use may be for which it is intended, it has to undergo a process of concentration.

2— THE PREPARATION OF CLARIFIED CONSOMME FOR CLEAR SOUPS

Qwantities for making four quarts. Five quarts of ordinary consomm^, one and one-half lbs. of very lean beef, the white of an egg, one fowl's carcase (roasted if possible). First, mince the beef and pound it in a mortar with the fowl's carcase and the white of egg, adding a little cold white consomm^. Put the whole into a tall, narrow, and thick-bottomed stewpan ; then gradually add the cold, white broth, from which all grease has been removed, that the whole may be well mixed. Then the stewpan may be put on the fire, and its contents thoroughly stirred, for fear of their burning at the bottom. When boiling-point is reached, move the stewpan to a corner of the fire, so that the soup may only simmer, for anything approaching the boil would disturb the contents. A good hour should be enough to properly finish the consomm^, and any longer time on the fire would be rather prejudicial than the reverse, as it would probably impair the flavour of the prepara- tion. Now carefully remove what little grease may have col- lected on the surface of the consomm^, and strain the latter through muslin into another clean stewpan. It is now ready for the addition of the garnishes that are to form part of it, which I shall enumerate in due course.

Remarks upon Clarifications

For clarified consommes, even more than for the ordinary kind, it is eminently advisable that the meat should be that of old animals. Indeed, it is safe to say that one lb. of meat coming from an animal of eight years will yield much better consomm^ than two lbs. would, coming from a fattened animal of about three or four years. The consomm^ will be stronger, mellower, and certainly more tasty, as the flesh of young animals has absolutely no richness of flavour.

It will be seen that I do not refer to any vegetable for the clarification. If the white consomm^ has been well carried out, it should be able to dispense with all supplementary flavouring, and, the customary error of cooks being rather to overdo the quantity of vegetables even to the extent of disguising the natural aroma of the consomm^ I preferred to entirely abandon

6 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY

the idea of vegetable garnishes in clarifications, and thus avoid a common stumbling-block.

3— CHICKEN CONSOMME

White chicken consomm6 is prepared in exactly the sam.e way as ordinary white consomm^. There need only be added to the meat, the quantity of which may be lessened, an old hen or a cock, slightly coloured on the spit or in the oven.

For the clarification, the quantity of roast fowl-carcases used may be increased, provided the latter be not too fat. The process, however, is the same as in the clarification of ordinary consommds.

The colour of chicken consomm6 should be lighter than that of the ordinary kind namely, a light, amber yellow, limpid and warm. ^

4— FISH CONSOMME

These consommes are rarely used, for Lenten soups with a fish basis are generally thick soups, for the preparation of which the fish fumet whereof I shall give the formula later (Formula No. ii) should avail. Whenever there is no definite reason for the use of an absolutely Lenten consomm^, it would be advisable to resort to one of the ordinary kind, and to finish off the same by means of a good fish essence extracted from the bones of a sole or whiting. An excellent consomm6 is thus obtained, more palatable and less flat than the plain fish con- somm^.

If, however, one were obliged to make a plain fish con- somm^, the following procedure should be adopted :

Clarification of Fish Consomme

Quantities for making Four Quarts. Four and one-half quarts of ordinary fish fumet having a decided taste; one-half lb. of good fresh caviare, or pressed caviare.

Mode of Procedure. Pound the caviare and mix the result- ing pulp with the cold fish fumet. Put the whole into a sauce- pan, place it on the open fire, and stir with a spatula until the contents reach the boil. Then move the saucepan to a corner of the fire, and let the consomm^ simmer gently for twenty minutes, after which strain it through muslin with great caution, and keep it well covered and in the warmth, so as to prevent the formation of a gelatinous film on the surface.

Fish consommi^s are greatly improved by the addition of

PONDS DE CUISINE 1

such ftfothatics as saffron or curry, both of which considerably add to their quahty.

' 5— GAME CONSOMME

The necks, breasts, and shoulders of venison and of hare, old wild rabbits, old pheasants, and old partridges may be used in the production of game consommes. An ordinary consomm^ may likewise be made, in which half the beef can be replaced by veal, and to which may be added, while clarifying, a suc- culent game essence. This last method is even preferable when dealing with feathered game, but in either case it is essential that the meat used should be half-roasted beforehand, in order to strengthen the fumet.

The formula that I give below must therefore only be looked upon as a model, necessarily alterable according to the resources at one's disposal, the circumstances, and the end in view.

Quantities for making Four Quarts of Plain Game Consomme.

3 lbs. of neck, shoulder, or breast i medium-sized leek and 2 sticks

of venison. of celery.

I J lbs. of hare-trimmings. i bunch of herbs with extra I old pheasant or 2 partridges. thyme and bay leaves.

4 oz. of sliced carrots, browned in i onion, oven-browned, with 2

butter. cloves stuck into it.

J lb. of mushrooms, likewise browned in butter.

Liquor. Five and one-half quarts of water.

Seasoning. One oz. of salt and a few peppercorns, these to be added ten minutes previous to straining the consomm^.

Time allowed for cooking. Three hours.

Mode of Procedure. Proceed in exactly the same way as for * ordinary consommes, taking care only to half-roast the meat, as I pointed out above, before putting it in the stewpan.

The Clarification of Game Consommes

The constituents of the clarification of game consommes vary according to the kind of consomm^ desired. If it is to have a partridge flavour, one partridge should be allowed for each quart of the consomm^, whereas if its flavour is to be that of the pheasant, half an old pheasant will be required per each quart of the liquid. Lastly, in the case of plain game consommes, one lb. of lean venison, hare, or wild rabbit should be allowed for each quart of the required consomm6.

Mode of Procedure. Whatever be the kind of game used, the latter must be thoroughly boned and the meat well pounded, together with the white of an egg per four quarts of consomm^.

8 GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY

About two oz. per quart of dried mushrooms should now be added if they can be procured, while the bones and the remains or carcases of game should be browned in the oven and com- pletely drained of all grease. The whole can now be mixed with the cold game consomm^. The clarification is then put over an open fire (stirring incessantly the while), and as soon as the boil is reached the saucepan must be moved to a corner of the fire, where its contents niay gently boil for three-quarters of an hour. The fat should then be removed, and the con- somm^ strained through muslin, after which cover up until wanted.

6— SPECIAL CONSOMMES FOR SUPPERS

The consommes whose formulae I have just given are in- tended more particularly for dinners. They are always finished off by some kind of garnish, which, besides lending them an additional touch of flavour, gives them their special and definite character when they are served up in the diner's plate.

But the case is otherwise with the consommes served for suppers. These, being only served in cups, either hot or cold, do not allow of any garnishing, since they are to be drunk at table. They must therefore be perfect in themselves, delicate, and quite clear.

These special consommes are made in a similar manner to the others, though it is needful to slightly increase the quantity of meat used for the clarification, and to add to that clarification the particular flavour mentioned on th.e menu to wit, a few stalks of celery, if the consomm^ is a celery one; a small quantity of curry, if the consomm6 is given as " ^ ITndienne " ; or a few old roast partridges if it is to be termed " Consomm^ au fumet de perdreau " ; and so on.

The means by which one may vary the aroma of con- sommes are legion, but it is highly important, what aroma soever be used, that the latter be not too pronounced. It ought only to lend a distinctive and, at the same time, subtle finish to the consomm6, which, besides sharpening