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''s^W PROCEEDINGS

THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

OF LONDON.

NOVEMBER 1833 to JUNE 1838.

VOL. II.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY R. AND J. E, TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET ;

AND SOLD AT THE APARTMENTS OF THE SOCIETY,

SOMERSET HOUSE.

1838.

B-

-mf^msi^

^RARIES

CORRIGENDA.

Page 13,

24, 53, 146, 147, 149, 161, 162, 171,

196,

210,

221,

416, -417, -450, -530,

535, 537,

Table, last column, (No. 34.) /. fur Marrington Dingle, rend Mary

Knoll Dingle g. Prescold read Frescoed h. Corton read Corston

Dele the comma after Castell Craig

line 25 for Bailey read Bayly

14 and note * Oveiipore rearf Oudeypore

7 from bottom 1 784 read 1824

9 Hardy read Hardie

6 from bottom outline read outlier

19 , medal read Proceeds

SO Wallickii read Wallichii

18 from bottom shisti read schisti

bottom line white read while

line 16 F- Darwin read C. Darwin

note No. 41, vol, ii. p. 191. read No.

36, vol. ii. p. 83. hne 21 7 Hunter read Hunton

10&22i

10 from bottom Plaistic read Plastic

21 Walton Naze read Harwich

Barracks ClifF 3 breaches read beaches

8 from bottom rocks and read rocky

PROCEEDINGS

OF

THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. Vol. II. * 1833—1834. No. 33.

Nov. 6. I HE Society assembled this evening for the Session.

John Ward, Esq. of Holwood, Bromley ; John F. South, Esq , St. Thomas's-street, Southwark ; and Francis Walker, Esq. of Southgate, Middlesex, were elected Fellows of this Society.

A paper was first read " On a Band of Transition Limestone, and on Granite Veins, appearing in the Greywacke Slate of Westmore- land, near Shap Wells and Wastdale Head," by the Rev. Adam Sedgwick, V.F.G.S., and Woodwardian Professor in the University of Cambridge.

The author began by stating, that his communication was a short supplement to a former paper, in which he described the range of a band of transition limestone from the south-western extremity of Cumberland through a portion of Lancashire and Westmoreland. He there had stated that this limestone was cut off by the Shap granite, and did not reappear on the north side of it. During the past summer, however, he ascertained, by the help of some new artificial sections laid bare near Shap Wells, that the band of lime- stone does reappear, nearly in its original line of direction; and that it passes, along with the slate rocks, unconformably under the ter- race of old red sandstone and mountain limestone. The phseno- raena are noticed in detail : and a mineral spring is described as rising among these beds, in near connexion with a protruded mass of porphyry.

The paper then describes some granite veins in the same neigh- bourhood, which rise from the central granite near the farm called Wastdale Head, and penetrate the grauwacke slate. Near the junction of the granite and slate, the latter puts on tlie character of the killas of Cornwall. The change extends to some distance, but gradually disappears, and the slate then returns to its common type, and contains organic remains. The author considers these facts as proving (in this instance) the posterior origin of the granite, and the protrusion of the granite veins into the preexisting slate rocks.

A. paper was then read entitled " A Notice respecting some Points in the Section of the Coast near St. Leonard's and Hastings," by William Henry Fitton, M.D., V.P.G.S. &c.

The improvements in the neighbourhood of St. Leonard's which

VOL. ir.

m 2

have rendered it necessary to cut down the face of the cliffs from Hastings to that place, have brought to light several portions of the strata, previously concealed. The object of the present paper is to describe some of these details j and a great part of it, conse- quently, is not susceptible of abridgement.

Several rocky ledges run out obliquely from the shore, both on the east and west of Hastings ; these are analogous to the ledges which occur in the equivalent of the Hastings Sands, on the south coast of the Isle of Wight; and for the greater part consist of con- cretional grit, including especially fresh-water shells, of the ge- iiera Cyclas, Paludina, and Unio; others again are composed of a pisolitic sand-rock, inclosing numerous grains of reddish brown oxide of iron, which is found all along the shore from the Lover's Seat to the west of Bopeep. With the rocks above mentioned beds are found to alternate, of sand-rock varying in colour and degrees of hardness, clay, and fuUer's-earth. In proceeding westward from Hastings, the strata are observed to decline gradually towards the west as far as the gate of St. Leonard's ; but at a very short distance beyond that point, they rise towards the west, and the same strata are found to recur, but in a reversed order. This appearance, which might at first be ascribed to some derangement, is produced, in fact, by a slight projection of the shore at the eastern point of the Marina at St. Leonard's, where the range of the beds coincides with the direction of the coast; the strata which come up from the sea at a small angle towards the interior, and are continued in the cliffs on the east and west, thus rising in dif- ferent directions.

Among the strata which have recently been disclosed in the cliffs, a continuation of the remarkable group of the White-rock is one of the most conspicuous, and can be traced from its emer- gence in the sea under the White-rock to the cliff within the New Brewery. Beneath, at an interval of about 30 feet, the well- known bed of white sand-rock which forms the cliff of the Castle Hill at Hastings, rises on the shore, and being continued to the north-east, may be traced in the upper part of the East-cliff, and thence nearly to the summit of Fairlight Down.

The group of the White-rock contains a subordinate stratum, in which numerous specimens o? Endogenites erosa\\a.vQ been found j and the large number of specimens exposed during the progress of the works, has brought to light some additional circumstances respecting this singular vegetable. The specimens, which were found lying horizontally, in a stratum composed of sand with al- ternate layers of clay, consist of two portions, perfectly distinct from each other: 1st, An external coating of lignite; within which is, 2ndly, A stony kernel or nucleus, the internal structure of which has beea already described*. The general form of the whole ap- pears to have been originally nearly cylindrical, and this has been modified by pressure, so that the transverse section both of the

* Geol. Trans., 2nd Series, vol. i. p. 423 : and Mantell's Tilgate Fossils,

masses, and of the tubular cavities within, generally approaches to an oval figure. The specimens diflFer very much in size ; being from less than one foot to nine feet in length ; the stony matter within occupying, in the largest, about 5 feet, with a thickness of 6 to 9 inches, and a general width of about I foot. This stony nucleus was invested with a coating of coal, from -rVth to -A- an inch in thickness, which wtis found to exti nd, at both extremities, 2 or 3 feet beyond tiie nucleus. The external surface of the coaly covering is uniform and smooth, of a light brown colour, and glis- tening: but neither in this surface, nor in the coal beneath, could any traces of organization be discovered. Thin polished slices of the nucleus were exhibited.

A ledge which is observable on the shore below St. Leonard's, may be traced thence in the cliffs, through the site of the church, and westward to the summit of the hill above the Sussex Hotel. In this group also, a specimen of Endogenites was found by Wood- bine Parish, Esq. ; by which and other circumstances it is identi- fied with that of the White-rock ledge: and from its including also a thin band of siliceous conglomerate, abounding in the remains of animals like those of the well-known grit of Tilgate Forest, the teeth and bones, especially, of the Iguanodon of Mantell, there can be no doubt of its geological identify with some of the strata of that place.

The coast sections, described in this paper, will be useful in assisting to determine the order of succession in the Hastings Sands; a point of difficulty, from the great similarity, both in the rocks, and the included fossils, of the several members composing that formation: and the author thinks it deserving of inquiry, whether the Ashburnham group, which has hitherto been referred to the lower portion of the Hastings Sands, may not be identical with some of these groups upon the shore, and, consequently, may not belong in reality to the upper part of the formation.

A letter was afterwards read from Woodbine Parish, Esq., ad- dressed to George Bellas Greenough, Esq., P.G.S., accompanying a collection of fossils made by Mr. Parish during the last summer at St. Leonard's.

These fossils Mr. Parish states were principally found in a layer of very compact conglomerate varying from 1 inch to 3 inches in thick- ness, and forming a crust upon a stratum of sandstone which ex- tends from the new church to the western extremity of St. Leo- nard's. They consist of remains of the Iguanodon, and other Sau- rians, and of the Lepisosteus Fittonii.

Mr. Parish also describes, in his letter, a submarine forest, which he traced at low water, from the western extremity of St. Leonard's to the headland at Bulverhithe, and he is of opinion that it is a con- tinuation of the submarine forest which occurs off Hastings. The trees, he says, are chiefly oak, and appear to have fallen towards the sea.

In the peat forming part of the deposit he found hazel nuts, a variety of seeds, and the remains of beetles and other insects. No

tradition has been preserved of the irruption of the sea by which the forest was submerged.

Nov. 20. Joseph Burkart, Esq., Engineer of Zacatecas, Mexico, and Jolin Kenyon, Esq., of Devonshire Place, were elected Fellows of this Society.

A paper was read entitled, " Notes on the Geology of the North Coast of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, from the Mouth of the Saguenay (Long. 69° 16') to Cape Whittle (Long. 60°)," by Captain Bayfield, R.N., and communicated by George Bellas Greenough, Esq., P.G S.

The line of coast surveyed by the author, and described by him in this memoir, includes above 500 miles. It is traversed by ranges of round- backed hills, rarely exceeding 1000 feet in height, and towards the eastern termination of the district sinking nearly to a level with the sea. In some parts of the coast the hills approach close to the shore; but in others they recede to a distance from it, and the country presents a succession of flats or extensive peat bogs.

The formations of which the main land and adjacent islands consist, are granitic and syenitic compounds, limestone, a deposit of clay, sand and gravel, and modern alluvial accumulations.

The granitic and syenitic rocks compose the whole of the hilly districts, with the exception of a tract opposite the Mingan Islands. True granite was noticed only in one place, the prevailing rocks being formed of felspar, quartz, hypersthene and hornblende. Porphyry, passing into syenite, was observed at the falls of the Maniton river ; and veins of trap were occasionally noticed traver- sing the syenite. Magnetic iron was found in great abundance along the whole line of the coast, either as a constituent of the rocks or as beds of sand accumulated on the beach.

The limestone forms the Mingan and Esquimaux Islands, and it oc- curs on the adjacent main land, reposing in horizontal beds on the syenite. It composes also the whole of the island of Anticosta, which lies to the southward of the Mingan Islands, as well as Cape Gaspe on the south shore of the St. Lawrence. It varies consider- ably in its characters, being sometimes compact, at others earth}', arenaceous, shaly, or crystalline ; and it generally abounds in fossils, which agree with those found in the limestone of Lake Huron and near Quebec. The strata, except at Cape Gaspe, dip at a very low angle towards the S.W.

The deposit of clay, sand and gravel forms a series of horizon- tal strata, sometimes 300 feet thick, in the valleys and basins be- tween the syenitic hills. The clay invariably occupies the lowest portion, and the gravel generally the highest. No shells were no- ticed, though the water-courses of the rivers cut through the de- posit.

The modern alluvial accumulations are of great extent, and in some parts of the~ coast are rapidly increasing. In Outard Bay (100 fathoms deep) the surface of the water was highly charged with earthy matter, which the surveying vessel cut through in her course, and displayed "beneath the pure sea water.

5

The peat bogs occur towards Cape Whittle, the eastern part of the district examined, and rest upon the syenite.

During his investigations, the author noticed many evidences of change having taken place in the relative level of land and vrater. He mentions, that in the Mingan Islands he traced a succession of shingle beaches, the most distant from the shore and covered with trees, being 60 leet above the level of the highest tides. In the Bay of the Seven Islands, and in almost every other bay, and at the en- trance of the valleys near the sea, he observed parallel ridges of sand, sometimes attaining a height of 100 feet, and occasionally containing shells analogous to those now inhabiting the St. Law- rence, This change the author conceives has been produced, not by successive depressions of water, but by successive elevations of land ; and he supports his opinion by showing, 1st, that no per- manent depressions could have taken place in the water of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, without corresponding ones in the Atlantic; and 2ndly, that the beach now forming on the Mingan Islands presents the same characters as the beaches which he traced at a distance from the shore; that the water-worn pillars of limestone which accompany each beach, bear evidence of having been worn or scooped out at different periods, the successive action of the water agreeing in level with the successive ridges of limestone shingle ; and he states that the distance between these marks of ac- tion of water on the limestone pillars, exactly agrees with the rise of the present tidal wave of the St. Lawrence. He also proves, by a minute description of the alluvial accumulations now forming on the shore of the main land, and a careful comparison of them with the parallel ridges of sand already mentioned, that an identity of character exists.

In conclusion, the author briefly refers to the geological structure of the south shore of the St. Lawrence, between the meridian of the Saguenay and Cape Gaspe, and states that it consists of alternating strata of slate and grauwacke, overlaid conformably, at the latter point, by limestone, containing fossils analogous to those of the Mingan Islands and Lake Huron.

Dec. 4. ViscountOxmantown, M.P. ; Sir George Magrath, M.D., of Plymouth ; Jones Quain, M.D., Professor of Anatomy and Phy- siology in the University of London ; George Rushout, Esq., of the 1st Life Guards; Rev. Thomas Smith Turnbull, M.A., F.K.S., Caius College, Cambridge ; C. H. Weston, Esq., B.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Russell-square; John Waterhouse, Jun., Esq., of Halifax, Yorkshire; and Richard Hollier, Esq., of Marc Hill, Green- wich, were elected Fellows of the Society.

A letter from Hugh E. Strickland, Esq., addressed to George Bellas Greenough, Esq., was first read.

This letter was accompanied by a manuscript map, on which are laid down, with greater accuracy than had before been attempted, the boundaries of the red marl and lias in the districts adjacent to Pershore, Evesham, Bitford, Alcester, Droitwich and Worcester. Mr. Strickland points out, also for the first time, a line of fault

6

ranging from a little north of Bredon Hill in Gloucestershire, to Inkberrow, north of the road from Alcester to Worcester. By this fault the relative position of the red marl and the lias has been af- fected, the former constituting a valley of elevation, bounded on each side by the latter. Mention is also made of bones and teeth of the Hippopotamus and of a Deer having been found in the gravel near Cropthorne, between Evesham and Pershore. Mr. Strickland like- wise alludes to the occurrence, on Shotover Hill near Oxford, of fossils which he believes to belong to the fresh-water genus Palu- dina; but the specimens wliich he procured are imperfect casts. These shells, he adds, were first discovered by the Rev. H. Jelly of Bath, in a sand-pit on the brow of the hill, much higher than the pit at which the Portland strata occur.

A paper on the Strata of Quainton and Brill in Buckinghamshire, by James Mitchell, LL.D., F.G.S., was then read.

In this communication the author confines his observations almost solely to an enumeration of the beds belonging to the Portland stone, presented at the two localities of Quainton and Brill.

The principal quarries at the former place are composed of the following strata :

Feet.

Top Vegetable mould 3

Clay _ ?

Iron sand (lower green sand) containing a layer of!

Fuller's earth / ^ ^

Hard sandstone 1 to 2

Clay 2

Soft, calcareous sandstone (Pendle stone) abound- "1 ^

ing in fossils J

Building stone, numerous fossils 2

Soft, white limestone 2^

Sand 6

Rubble stone, abundance of fossils 3

Sand 6

Coarse, soft, blue stone 1^

Besides the fossils common to the Portland stone, the author pro- cured caudal vertebrae of a Plesiosaurus and a Crocodile.

The strata at Brill are then enumerated in the following order :

Feet.

Vegetable mould 4

White, soft limestone, with fossils 7

Sand 3

Rubble, with fossils 4

Sand and clay, with nodules of blue stone in the") c

lower part j

Coarse, white sand 2

Blue clay 2

In the lower part of this quarry is an abundance of green sand. The upper beds of stone in the Quainton quarries, the author adds, are wanting in those at Brill ; and the lower beds at each

locality are stated to be nearly the same, though not agreeing pre- cisely in all their details.

A paper was next read, entitled " Observations on the Cliff at Reculver in Kent," by James Mitchell, LL.D., F.G.S.

The object of this paper is twofold: 1st, It describes the geolo- gical structure of the cliff; and 2nd, It gives a chronological account of the changes which have taken place on this part ol' the coast of Kent since the period of the Roman dominion.

The cliff, described in the memoir, is situated between Reculver and Heme Bay, and is about two miles in extent. The upper part, where the beds are fully displayed, consists of about 35 feet of mottled, brown and red clay ; and the lower part of about 50 feet of sand, containing a layer of masses of sandstone. Fossils are stated to be found only in the sand, and to belong chiefly to a species of Venus. Sections are given of different parts of the cliff, and it is shown that the strata dip gradually towards the west, the sandy por- tion of the series sinking beneath the level of the shore, and being replaced entirely by the clay.

In tracing the history of the change on the line of the coast, the author first draws attention to the present hydrography of the bed of theThames,andgiveshis reasons for concluding that many of the sand banks now dry at low water, were formerly islands; and in additional support of this opinion, mentions the large island which is laid down in Ptolemy's map in the position of the present Margate sands.

The author then states that historical documents, and inscriptions on altars, prove that Reculver, or Regulbium, was at the period of the Roman dominion a military station and a sea-port, and that the Isle of Thanet was at that aera separated from the rest of Kent by a navigable channel; that at the period of the Norman Conquest the district of Reculver was one of the hundreds of Kent, though it now forms only an obscure portion of the hundred of Bleangate ; that in the reign of Henry VII. the channel between the Isle of Thanet and Reculver was so far filled up as to permit a bridge to be built, but according to Leland, in the beginning of the reign of Henry VIIL, Reculver was then half a mile from the sea, or, in pro- portion to other distances mentioned by him, about one mile j that in the year 1780, the wall of the Roman castrum, distant 80 yards from the church, had been only lately taken down ; and lastly, that about the beginning of the present century, the church itself was abandoned as a place of worship, and would in all probability have long since disappeared, but for the precaution taken by the Trinity House to defend the cliff from further destruction.

Dec. 18. Lieut. -Colonel Cliveof the Grenadier Guards; Charles Denham Orlando Jephson, Esq., M.P., Mallow ; Dr. MacDougle, of Duke-street, St. James's ; and Charles Spicer, Esq., Royal Ho- spital, Chelsea, were elected Fellows of this Society.

A paper, entitled " Notes on the Geology of the Brown Clee Hill in Shropshire," by Rumley Wright, Esq., employed in theOrdnance Survey, was first read.

The base of the Brown Clee Hill is stated to consist of old red

s

sandstone, and the upper part of coal measures surmounted by basalt. The top stratum of the sandstone is a conglomerate, and the same formation contains two beds of nodular limestone or cornstone, the lower of which is about 12 feet thick. The strata are said to dip regularly towards the centre of the hill at an angle of about 7°.

The coal-field is represented to have the form of the figure 8. The strata are said to be about 150 feet thick, and to dip towards a common centre at an angle of from 3 to 5 degrees. Three beds of coal have been discovered, varying from 1 foot 7 inches to 2 feet 6 inches in thickness, but the coal is of inferior quality to that of the Titterstone Clee Hill.

Three faults are described, and stated to range nearly parallel to each other, and to traverse the coal measures in a north easterly di- rection. One of them, the author observes, is marked by a dyke of basalt connected with an overlying mass of the same rock. It is 13 yards in horizontal thickness, and though the wall of the dyke is so hard as to require to be blasted, yet the coal is not in the least charred.

The overlying basalt is shown to form the two highest points of the hill, one of them being 1800 feet above the level of the sea, and the other 1600.

A memoir " On the Geology of the Banks of the Indus, the In- dian Caucasus, and the Plains of Tartary to the Shores of the Cas- pian," by Lieut. Alexander Burnes, was then read.

The author has endeavoured in this paper to embody the geolo- gical observations which he made on a journey during the years 1831 and 1832, up the river Indus and across the lofty range of Hindoo Koosh to the Caspian Sea.

He first describes the province of Cutch, situated near the eastern mouth of the Indus. He states that it is mountainous; that the soil is either rocky or sandy, with masses of lava scattered over its surface; and that sulphur, coal, iron and alum are found in the district.

Nummulites occur in a ridge near the right banks of the Indus. The delta of the river is composed of a succession of beds of earth, clay and sand of different colours, sometimes parallel, and sometimes having one stratum dovetailed into another. The sea is described as being discoloured to a distance of three miles by the detritus carried down by the river, with regard to which it may be stated that the base of the triangle of the delta is above 125 miles.

After mentioning a range of hills called the Hala Mountains, vi^hich extends in a northerly direction from the sea-shore west- ward of the mouths of the Indus, and terminates to the N.W. of Cabool in the Hindoo Caucasus, and which consists, in part of com- pact nummulitic limestone, the author proceeds to describe the principal geological features which he observed on the banks of this great river. The town of Hydrabad, he states, is built on a finely grained, shelly limestone. At Schwan in lat. 26° 22' and at Curachee,

are hot wells; and the island of Bukhur, in lat. 27° 42', consists en- tirely of flint. On the eastern bank of the river, opposite this island, is a precipice of flint, 40 feet high, on which the village of Roree is built. In lat. 28° 55 the rivers of the Punjab fall into the Indus. Still higher up, in lat. 33", at Kara Bagh, the river cuts through a range of hills, described by Mr. Elphinstone as the salt range. The salt is found in layers of about a foot in thickness, separated from each other by thin strata of clay. With the exception of this range of hills, which is estimated to be about 1800 feet above the level of the sea, the district of the Punjab is uniformly flat; but the hilly di- strict is intersected by numerous defiles, presenting vertical strata, which terminate in peaked points Between the river Sutlege and Lahore the country consists of indurated clay, sometimes gravelly.

At Attoch, much higher up, the rocks by which the Indus is con- fined consist of a dark coloured micaceous slate, which is said to extend to the southward until it meets the salt range above men- tioned. Near this place gold is washed out of the sand of the river.

At Lahore, in February 1832, the author experienced a very vio- lent shock of an earthquake. Several valleys were choked up by the masses of rock thrown down from the overhanging precipices, and a great part of the population of Badakhshan was destroyed In crossing the Punjab the author observed that several buildings of the Mogul Emperors were decaying from the foundations, and were encrusted with an efflorescence of nitre. Proceeding to the westward from the Indus, he found bituminous coal at Cohat, and that the salt range above mentioned extended across the country into this district. The river of Cabool flows through a very nar- row defile, the rocks of which rise to a height of 2000 feet, and con- sist of sandstone, quartz rock and mica schist, the strata of the latter being vertical. Cabool is situated 6000 feet above the sea. The neighbouring hills are covered with rounded pebbles of all sizes, sometimes loose, at others forming a conglomerate, A beautiful white marble is found near Cabool, and the rocks are occasionally covered with asbestus.

From Cabool the author crossed the Hindoo Caucasus to Balkh and the plains of Tartarj. This range of mountains is the prolon- gation of the Himalaya to the westward of the Indus.

Hindoo Koosh is, properly speaking, the name given to the highest peak in the range, the only part of which that is covered with per- petual snow is the Koh-i-Baba, between Cabool and Bameean, from which latter place the waters flow northward into the Oxus. In some of the defiles through which the author passed, the sides rose to a height of 2000 or 3000 feet. The loftiest peak which he ob- served between Cabool and Hajeeguk consisted of gneiss or granite, sometimes deeply impregnated with iron. These formations were succeeded by blue slates and quartz rock, and precipices of micaceous schist. From the summits of the precipices masses of green granite and other rocks had been hurled into the valley below. Further down is a calcareous conglomerate, succeeded by cliffs of reddish and purple coloured clay, and by ridges of indurated clay mixed

10

with bands of a harder nature. In this ridge great idols are carved and caves excavated, for it is easily worked. The neighbourhood of Bameean is described as producing gold, lead, copper, tin, anti- luon}', sulphur and iron.

The lower pasjses of Hindoo Koosh consist principally of a light brown splintery limestone, of great hardness, and susceptible of a high polish. This formation is followed l)y sandstone rocks, in one of which round flint stones are imbedded at regular intervals. The real peak of Hindoo Koosh lies about a degree to the eastward of this route, and the difficulty of crossing it is very great.

From Khooloom, whence the author descended into the plains of Toorkistan, the country slopes gradually towards the Caspian. It is generally flat and is watered by the Ox us.

The author then describes the course of theOxus, from its source in the high plain of Pameer until it is lost in the sea of Aral, after passing through a low and swampy district. He does not believe that the Oxus ever terminated in the Caspian Sea, and concludes that what are called the dry river beds between Astrabad and Khina are the remains of ancient canals. The natives pretend that the waters of the Aral pass by a subterranean communication into the Caspian Sea, and that at a place called Kara-goombuz, between the two seas, the water may be heard gushing beneath, it is, how- ever, remarkable, that in the sandy ridge near this place, water is found near the surface, although further south it cannot be had within a hundred fathoms. The author then fully describes the na- vigation, course, rise and fall, and inundations of the Oxus; and he mentions that it is frequently frozen over.

The author then notices the effects of the great earthquake of 1832 in the valley of Badakhshan. The roads in this valle}'^ were blocked up for several days by the falling of stones and cliffs, and this place seems to have been the centre of the convulsion. Badakh- shan is famous for its rubies, which are found imbedded in limestone.

The country which extends from the north of the Oxus towards Bokhara is next described. It consists of a succession of low ridges of soft yellowish limestone, sometimes oolitic, with a superficial coating of loose gravel, alternating with plains of hard clay. Sand hills of greater or less extent, raised by the winds, also occur in se- veral places on this plain, and in some of the valleys are saline rivu- lets and deposits of salt.

The author afterwards offers some remarks upon the inhabitants, and on the meteorological phenomena which he observed in the neighbourhood of Bokhara; and concludes his memoir with a de- scription of the sandy desert of the Turcomans, between the Oxus and the Caspian Sea.

PROCEEDINGS

OF

THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

YoL. II. 1833—1834. No. 34-.

Jan. 8, 1834. George C. Lewis, Esq., of Henrietta Street, Lon- don ; Thomas Jameson Torrie, Esq., of Edinburgh ; Peter B. Brodie, jun., Esq., of Lincoln's Inn Fields ; Wm. Copland, Esq., of Edin- burgh ; and Benjamin H. Bright, Esq., of Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, were elected Fellows of this Society.

A paper was read by Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., " On the Old Red Sandstone in the Counties of Hereford, Brecknock and Caermarthen, with collateral Observations on the Dislocations which affect the north-west margin of the South Welsh Coal-basin."

This memoir is the first of a series of communications resulting from researches made during the last summer.

A short sketch is given of the structure of that portion of the car- boniferous limestone of the South Welsh coal-field, which, in Breck- nock andCaermarthenshires, is contiguous to those older formations, which were the particular subject of the author's examination.

After noticing some features which are common to the mountain limestone in other districts, such as an oolitic structure, and the ex- istence of caverns and funnel-shaped cavities, attention is specially called to a portion of the limestone near Gwinfe in Caermarthenshire, the exterior of which exhibits a high polish. .As these polished beds protrude from the edge of a turf bog, it is suggested that such effects may have been produced by the long-continued action of a weak ve- getable acid issuing from the morass, and altering the surface of the rock.

I. Old Red Sandstone. The old red sandstone is divided into three groups.

a. Conglomerate and sandstone, b. Cornstones and marl. c. Tile- stones.

a. The uppermost of these groups, occupying the loftiest summits of the country described, as the Brecon and Caermarthen Fans, is uniformly capped by a band of conglomerate, underlaid by a vast thickness of sandstone. Neither calcareous beds nor organic remains have been discovered in this group.

b. The central group is spread in undulating masses over the greater part of Herefordshire. The red argillaceous marls of which it consists, contain many beds of concretionary limestone or cornstone, with some strata of sandstone.

Vol. II.

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Remains of Crustacea have been found in thisgroup, together with defences of fishes, &c.

c. The tile-stones are best exhibited in a remarkably rectilinear es- carpment, extending from the north-western extremity of the Mynidd Eppint to near the mouth of the Towey, a distance of about thirty- five miles.

These beds contain fossils in Caermarthenshire, and also in their north-eastern prolongation into Shropshire : among them are Lingula, Avicula, three or four species of univalves, a small species of Orthoce- ras, &c. These fossiliferous tile-stones constitute the beds of passage into the " Ludlow Rock," or highest member of the grauwacke series.

The limits of certain detached basins of the old red sandstone, par- tially described during the last session, and which are spread over the area of the inferior Ludlow rocks, have this year been extended west- ward to the source of the Teme, twenty-five miles to the north-west of the ancient line of demarcation. The absence of all vegetable re- mains, with the exception of a few small fragments, notwithstanding the full exhibition afforded by many natural, deep sections of the mineral structure of all the groups of the formation, is insisted upon as demonstrating the hopelessness of ever finding any workable quan- tity of coal in the old red sandstone of this part of the kingdom.

The maximum thickness of the whole formation is estimated to be about 10,000 feet.

II. Outliers of Carboniferous Limestone, &c. ; Dislocations of the Old Red Sandstone.

A very remarkable outlier of carboniferous limestone and millstone grit, is first described, occupying the summit of a mountain of old red sandstone to the south of the town of Crickhowell. This mass, called Pen Cerrig Caleb, is distant from the main escarpment of carboni- ferous limestone from four to five miles, and is separated from it by the deep valley of the Usk. It is shown, by the position and slight inclination of the beds, that the limestone of Pen Cerrig Caleb must have been connected with that of the main escarpment anterior to the excavation of the intermediate valley, and the case is cited as one of the deepest and most extensive denudations which has come within the author's observation.

Numerous and complicated dislocations of great extent, occur in that segment of the margin of the South Welsh coal-basin, which extends from the Caermarthen Fan to the latitude of Llandeilo. The largest of these breaks is the great upcast of Fan Sirgaer, by which the old red conglomerate is thrown up about 700 feet from its regular horizon at Cerrig Ogof. The greatest downcast has taken place at the spot marked by the polished limestone ; but the most extraordi- nary of all these disruptions is that which has given rise to the po- sition of the singular outlier of carboniferous limestone called Castel Cerrig Cennen. This outlier, by a violent elevation of the old red sandstone, has been dismembered from its parent rock, and left in- sulated with the dip of its beds reversed, in the centre of a valley of the old red sandstone.

By these great elevations and subsidences large masses of car-

Table of the stratified Deposits beneath the Coal-ra

1 the Counties of Hereford, Salop, Montgomery, Radnor

DESCENDINI

Brecknock, Caermarthen, Monmouth, Worcester, Stafford and Gloucester. )

Carboniferous limestone.

Old red sandstone.

I. Ludlow rocks.

IV. Builth and Llandeilo

Limestone. Shale.

a. Red conglomerate

and sandstone.

b. Cornstone and ai^l-

laceous marb.

d. Upper Ludlow rock.

/. Lower Ludlow rock.

Lilhological Characters.

;rlying thick-bedded sandst

■>, hard, red and green sandstone.

grey-coloured, thin-bedded sandstone.

Subcrystalline or gray and blue argillaceous limestone .

ff. Highly concretionaiy gray and blue subcrystalline lin

and finely laminated,

/. Dark-coloured flags, mostly calcareous, with

Characteristic Organic liemai

(Defence and teeth of fishes. Clee Hill, Salop.)

a. No organic remains observed ....

b. Crustacea of undescribed genera .

rulites

Small Orthoccra. Small Icbthyodo

d. Avicula, n. s. A. retroflexa, Hisinger. Atrypa (Dalman), n. s. Cypri-

cardia, n. s. Homonolotus Knightii, new genua, Kiinig. Leptirna lata, V. Buch. Orthis, several new species. Orbicula, 2 new species. Ortbo- cera, several new species. Pleurotomaria 1 2 new species. Turbo, n. s. Gigantic serpuline bodies, Bic. Sic.

e. Pentamerus Knightii, M. C. Pileopsis vetusta, M. C. Bellerophon, n. s.

Lingula, n. s. Atrypa, n. s. Terebratula Wilsoni, M. C. Calamopora fibrosa, Goldf., and a few other corals. /. I'hragmoceras, new genus, Broderip, 3 species. Asaphus caudatus. Ichthydorulites i small. " Cardiok/' Bred., a new genus, 2 sp. Nau- tilus, n. s. SpinilJtes, 2 n. s. Pentamerus. Atrypa galeata, Dalm., n. s. Pleurotomaria, n, s. Orthocera pyriformis, n. s. and several others.

Producta depressa, M. C. Orthocera, several species, caudatus. Calyniene Blumenbachii. The Ear Trilobite and others. As. caudatus variety, C. Blumenbachii. Lingida, n. s. Orthis, n. and others, Cyrtia trapezoidalis, Dalm. Delthyris, n. s. Orthocci ti. a. O. annulata, M. C. Crinoidea, &c.

i. Pentamerus Isvis, M. C. P. ohlongus, n. s. Leptena, n. s. PUeopsis, n. s. Orthis Callactis, Dalm., and several new species.

Terehratida, n. s. 1 r ..^ _„.

Tentaculites and Crinoidea, abundant, j

k. Nucula, n. s. Pentamerus, n. s. 'Irilobites of undescribed species, and 14 species of the genus Orthis have been found, including 0. apertu- ratus, Dalm., all differing from those of the overlying formations.

e yet been observed in this gi'eat system.

. Caermarthen and Brecon Fans, S.E. partof Biac.^ Forest, Brecknockshire : danks of the Brown Clee Hill, Shropshire.

. Central and northern parts of Herefordahire : extern part of Brecknockshire : Whitbach near Ludlow, and base of the Clee Hi]ls,*"Shropshite : Tenbury and Shaterford, near Kidderminster, Worcestershire.

, Pontarlleche, Cwmdwr, Caermarthenshire : Clyro Hilla, Brecknockshire: Tin- mill Copse, near Downton Castle, Herefordshh-e : Clun Forest, Shropsliire.

shire : West flanks of Mab

May Hill, Tortworth, Gl<

Trewerne Hills, Com-y-fan, Brecon, Llanbad( Aymestry, Croft Ambry, Gatley, Brindgwood Chase, Downton on the Rock

Herefordshire: Yeo Edge, Sbelderton, Norton Camp, Dinchopc, Caynham

Camp, Shropshire : Sedgeley, Staflbrdshire. Esearpmonta of Mocktree and Brindgwood Chase, Gatley, and valley of Wool-

Iiope, Herefordshire : Marrington Dingle, Westhope, Hopedale, and Long

Mountain, Shropshire : west side of Abberley and Malvern Hills; escarpmcnS

in Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock and Caermarthenshires.

Lincoln Hill, Benthall and Wenlock Edge, Shropshire : Burrington, Nether Lye near Aniestry, Nash, near Presteignb, Old Radnor : PwU-Calch, Caermarthen- shire : valley of Woolhope, Ledbury, and west side of Malvern Hills- east side of Abberley Hills, Dudle^r, Worcestershire : Long Hope, near May Hill Glou-

cestershire : Prescold t

, Buildwaa, Hui gomery, Rao Hilla, Alfrick, Worcestershire

ev,

d Cil-na-Caya, i

and Clungunford, Salop :

, Wistan;

Brecknock and Caermarthenshires : west flank of Malvern of Wren's Nest, Dudley, &c. &c.

Banks of the Onny, near Horderley, Acton Burnell, CbatwalJ : the Hollies near Hope Bowdler, Cheney LongWlle, Acton Scott ; east flank of Wrekin and Caer Caradoc, Salop : Eastnor Park, Obelisk, and centre of Woolhope Valley, Here- fordshire ; May HiU, Gloucestershire.

Horderley, Hoar Edge, Long Lane, and Corton, Shropshire: Ankerdine HDI, Old Stomdge, Howler Heath, S.W. of Malvern Hifis, Worcesterahire : May Hili, Gloucestershu-e: and the same locaHtiea as i in Shropshire: Guilsfiel& and Alt-y -naen, Montgomeryshire : CasteU Craig, Gwyddon, Caermarthen-

Rorington, near Shelve, Shropshire : Liaudrindod and WcUfield, i Radnorshire : Tan-yr-Alt to Llandeilo, Caermarthenshire.

3 Longniynd Linley, Haughmond, Lyth, Pulverbatch Hills, i en, east ot Rhayader, Brecon, &c. &c. : hills west of Llandov

N.B. No vegetable remains, except the Fi duals have heen mentioned as i None of the species of corals or shells

serra (Brongn-), and some

of each subdivision- Others,

identical with those found in the tr

been found in any portion of the deposits below the carboniferous limestone, nor has any coaly matter, -. {Atrypa reliciilarit, Wahl.), wliich occurs in several formations, have been omitted in this short Table,

It carboniferous limestone.

idstoncs (land A) pass into quartz rock in the vicinity of certain trap rocks (Wrekin, Caer Caradoc, Blaen Dyfiringam, &c.), as will be explained in a Bubacquent Mcmoi

beyond <